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Jian Zhang and Youcun Qi

; Fig. 1b 4 ) as well as underestimation associated with blockage/overshooting (e.g., near 47.5°N, 123.4°W; Fig. 1b 4 ). The BB feature coexisted with orographically enhanced precipitation ( Fig. 1c 4 ). The fifth was the Tropical Storm Gustav event on 3 September 2008 in the southeast, where overestimations associated with a BB (near northern boundary of the domain; Fig. 1b 5 ) was accompanied with underestimations associated with tropical precipitation (southwest of the domain; Fig. 1b 5 ). The

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R. Uijlenhoet, J.-M. Cohard, and M. Gosset

1. Introduction Large-aperture (near infrared) boundary layer scintillometers are becoming standard, commercially available, tools for estimating the turbulent sensible heat flux in the atmospheric surface layer over scales of hydrological and meteorological interest, from a few hundreds of meters to several kilometers (e.g., de Bruin et al. 1995 ; Chehbouni et al. 1999 ; Meijninger and de Bruin 2000 ; Cain et al. 2001 ; Lagouarde et al. 2002 ; Meijninger et al. 2002b ; Beyrich et al

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Youcun Qi, Jian Zhang, Brian Kaney, Carrie Langston, and Kenneth Howard

precipitation is comparable to or greater than the vertical variation. Another challenge is the underestimation for orographically enhanced precipitation processes. The existing WSR-88D cannot adequately resolve the orographic processes below the freezing level. The current study uses S-band Precipitation Profiler (S-PROF; Ecklund et al. 1999 ; White et al. 2000 ; Matrosov et al. 2006 ) observations from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Hydrometeorology Testbed 2006 (HMT06

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Dusanka Zupanski, Sara Q. Zhang, Milija Zupanski, Arthur Y. Hou, and Samson H. Cheung

domain boundaries. Use of these operational data is essential to provide information on the dynamical forcing in domain interiors. At the current prototype development stage, these data types include in situ conventional data and clear-sky satellite radiances from selected channels of AMSU-A, AMSU-B, and the High Resolution Infrared Radiation Sounder (HIRS). Observations from AMSR-E and TMI are the first set of precipitation-affected radiances to be used in the prototype system. The observation

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F. M. Ralph, E. Sukovich, D. Reynolds, M. Dettinger, S. Weagle, W. Clark, and P. J. Neiman

long history of examining a particular period and region to document QPF performance, including the early paper by Bosart (1980) that documented errors in the operational forecast model of that era. A key driver of HMT is the recognition that the current metric and precipitation threshold used to assess forecast skill are inadequate for many users, particularly for large precipitation events. Currently, the official National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)’s National Weather Service

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Sandra E. Yuter, David A. Stark, Justin A. Crouch, M. Jordan Payne, and Brian A. Colle

h from the sounding time has limitations because variables may have sharp gradients across frontal boundaries within the domain, and the storm structures will move and evolve during the 12-h period. Model reanalysis products such as the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)–NCAR reanalysis ( Kalnay et al. 1996 ) are currently available four-times daily. For the purposes of this paper, the advantages in accuracy of the observed twice-daily upper-air soundings outweigh the more

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