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Peter J. Marinescu, Susan C. van den Heever, Max Heikenfeld, Andrew I. Barrett, Christian Barthlott, Corinna Hoose, Jiwen Fan, Ann M. Fridlind, Toshi Matsui, Annette K. Miltenberger, Philip Stier, Benoit Vie, Bethan A. White, and Yuwei Zhang

Coauthors , 2009 : Aerosol- and updraft-limited regimes of cloud droplet formation: Influence of particle number, size and hygroscopicity on the activation of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 9 , 7067 – 7080 , https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-9-7067-2009 . 10.5194/acp-9-7067-2009 Ritter , B. , and J.-F. Geleyn , 1992 : A comprehensive radiation scheme for numerical weather prediction models with potential applications in climate simulations . Mon. Wea. Rev. , 120 , 303

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Yun Lin, Yuan Wang, Bowen Pan, Jiaxi Hu, Yangang Liu, and Renyi Zhang

, consistent with van den Heever et al. (2011) . Hence, the aerosol–cloud interaction for the diverse cloud regimes and their transitions throughout the cloud life cycle needs to be evaluated to assess the overall aerosol direct and indirect radiative forcings on regional and global climate. Future statistical study on long-term observations and/or modeling simulations is also necessary to more accurately examine the comprehensive aerosol effects on clouds and precipitation. Also, case studies associated

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Eyal Ilotoviz, Alexander P. Khain, Nir Benmoshe, Vaughan T. J. Phillips, and Alexander V. Ryzhkov

of raindrops. However, FDs still play an important role in the mechanism of the formation of so-called Z DR columns—that is, zones of enhanced Z DR [ Kumjian et al. (2014) and references therein]. The spatial distribution of FDs affects the rate of hail formation and the spatial location of the zones in which hail forms. The regime of FDs’ and hail growth, dry or wet, is important not only for an understanding of the layered structure of hail particles but also for the correct calculation of

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Tianmeng Chen, Jianping Guo, Zhanqing Li, Chuanfeng Zhao, Huan Liu, Maureen Cribb, Fu Wang, and Jing He

classification product process description and interface control document, version 5.0. Cooperative Institute for Research in the Atmosphere, Colorado State University, 50 pp. [Available online at http://www.cloudsat.cira.colostate.edu/sites/default/files/products/files/2B-CLDCLASS_PDICD.P_R04.20070724.pdf .] Wilks , D. S. , 2011 : Statistical Methods in the Atmospheric Sciences . 3rd ed. Elsevier, 676 pp . Williams , E. , and Coauthors , 2002 : Contrasting convective regimes over the Amazon

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

on low-level warm clouds, largely because they strongly reflect solar radiation back to space and cool the surface without impacting outgoing longwave radiation much. This is true especially for marine stratocumulus clouds, which cover roughly one-third of the global oceans ( Warren et al. 1988 ) and act as “air conditioners” to the climate system ( Stephens and Slingo 1992 ). Since warm clouds do not involve mixed-phase and ice phase regimes, they are less complicated microphysically, and thus

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Jie Peng, Zhanqing Li, Hua Zhang, Jianjun Liu, and Maureen Cribb

. , 131 , 2639 – 2663 , doi: 10.1256/qj.04.62 . Khain , A. P. , N. BenMoshe , and A. Pokrovsky , 2008 : Factors determining the impact of aerosols on surface precipitation from clouds: An attempt at classification . J. Atmos. Sci. , 65 , 1721 – 1748 , doi: 10.1175/2007JAS2515.1 . Klein , S. A. , and D. L. Hartmann , 1993 : The seasonal cycle of low stratiform clouds . J. Climate , 6 , 1587 – 1606 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0442(1993)006<1587:TSCOLS>2.0.CO;2 . Koren , I. , Y. J

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

. Cziczo et al. (2013) found sea salt in cirrus ice crystal residuals. Particles arising from fossil fuel combustion often exhibit low to no ice nucleation activity ( Phillips et al. 2013 ; Chou et al. 2013 ); however, biomass burning particles can be ice active at temperatures below 261 K ( Petters et al. 2009 ; McCluskey et al. 2014 ). In the atmosphere, microphysical and chemical processes lead to additional complexity in INP classification. Atmospheric aerosol particles are internally and

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Christina S. McCluskey, Thomas C. J. Hill, Camille M. Sultana, Olga Laskina, Jonathan Trueblood, Mitchell V. Santander, Charlotte M. Beall, Jennifer M. Michaud, Sonia M. Kreidenweis, Kimberly A. Prather, Vicki Grassian, and Paul J. DeMott

are active as INPs at −30°C; Rogers et al. 1998 ) that are required for heterogeneous ice nucleation, typically via immersion freezing of supercooled liquid cloud droplets. The action of INPs in a cloud, in concert with the Wegener–Bergeron–Findeisen process ( Pruppacher and Klett 1997 ; Verheggen et al. 2007 ) and other microphysical processes such as riming and aggregation, can alter the precipitation potential, lifetime, and optical properties of mixed-phased clouds. However, these climate

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