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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric Maloney, and Susan C. van den Heever

excluded ( supplementary movie ). The dashed lines in Fig. 2b and Fig. 3c demonstrate how the removal of the TC affected precipitation. Excluding TC 5A removed the westward-propagating feature in the time–longitude diagram from 25 to 26 November ( Figs. 3a,c ). The dashed lines in Fig. 2a indicate how removal of the TC affected domain-mean LHFLX for the 1.5Ctrl0 simulation and the two 4-km control simulations. b. Cluster classification Clusters were stratified into MJO regimes to determine if and

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, and Merhala Thurai

able to mimic the DSD-based classification technique with sufficient spatial and temporal resolution and tuning for the tropical, oceanic precipitation regime. However, current radar-based C/S partitioning has considerable uncertainty in shallow, weak convection and convective elements embedded in stratiform rain. The benefits of using C/S R ( z ) equations will not be realized if the partitioning is incorrect. If a confident echo identification cannot be made, the best alternative is R ( z ) ALL

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Elizabeth J. Thompson, Steven A. Rutledge, Brenda Dolan, Merhala Thurai, and V. Chandrasekar

distributions. Unlike convection, DSDs and dual-polarization radar variables during stratiform rain appear to exhibit more similar characteristics across different climate regimes ( BC01 ; Bringi et al. 2003 , 2009 ; Thurai et al. 2010 ; T15 ). b. New dual-polarization rainfall relationships Given the dependence and interdependence of dual-polarization radar variables on tropical oceanic DSD variability discussed in section 3a , this section explores new R relationships formed with these data [ Table

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David M. Zermeño-Díaz, Chidong Zhang, Pavlos Kollias, and Heike Kalesse

: Observed characteristics of the MJO relative to maximum rainfall . J. Atmos. Sci. , 64 , 2332 – 2354 , doi: 10.1175/JAS3968.1 . Cai , Q. , G. J. Zhang , and T. Zhou , 2013 : Impacts of shallow convection on MJO simulation: A moist static energy and moisture budget analysis . J. Climate , 26 , 2417 – 2431 , doi: 10.1175/JCLI-D-12-00127.1 . Chen , Y.-H. , and A. D. Del Genio , 2009 : Evaluation of tropical cloud regimes in observations and a general circulation model . Climate Dyn

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Naoko Sakaeda, Scott W. Powell, Juliana Dias, and George N. Kiladis

. Wang , 2008 : Diurnal precipitation regimes in the global tropics . J. Climate , 21 , 2680 – 2696 , https://doi.org/10.1175/2007JCLI2051.1 . 10.1175/2007JCLI2051.1 Kiladis , G. N. , K. H. Straub , and P. T. Haertel , 2005 : Zonal and vertical structure of the Madden–Julian oscillation . J. Atmos. Sci. , 62 , 2790 – 2809 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS3520.1 . 10.1175/JAS3520.1 Kim , J.-E. , C. Zhang , G. N. Kiladis , and P. Bechtold , 2018 : Heating and moistening of

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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is a prominent tropical disturbance that has a broad impact on the global weather and climate ( Zhang 2013 ; Gottschalck et al. 2010 ). The MJO is related to a wide variety of tropical and extratropical ocean and atmosphere phenomena, ranging from local to global spatial scales and diurnal to interannual time scales. Therefore, it is an important target of extended-range weather forecasting. However

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

it propagates while the associated latent heat release generates teleconnection patterns that affect global weather and climate (e.g., Zhang 2005 , 2013 ). The ability of global operational and climate models to capture moisture–convection interactions within this convective envelope is closely related to their being able to simulate its growth and propagation (e.g., Bechtold et al. 2008 ; Hirons et al. 2013b , a ; Kim et al. 2014 ; Klingaman et al. 2015 ). Observational studies have

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Weixin Xu and Steven A. Rutledge

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ) is the most remarkable intraseasonal concept in the tropics. The MJO has broad impacts on the global weather and climate ( Lau and Waliser 2005 ; Zhang 2005 , 2013 ) such as monsoon onset and rainfall variability ( Lau and Chan 1986 ; Hendon and Liebmann 1990 ; Lawrence and Webster 2002 ), tropical cyclone frequency ( Liebmann et al. 1994 ; Maloney and Hartmann 2000 ), tornado outbreaks ( Thompson and

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Walter M. Hannah, Brian E. Mapes, and Gregory S. Elsaesser

-00165.1 . Derbyshire , S. H. , I. Beau , P. Bechtold , J.-Y. Grandpeix , J.-M. Pirou , J.-L. Redelsperger , and P. M. M. Soares , 2004 : Sensitivity of moist convection to environmental humidity . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 130 , 3055 – 3079 , doi: 10.1256/qj.03.130 . Elsaesser , G. S. , C. D. Kummerow , T. S. Lecuyer , Y. N. Takayabu , and S. Shige , 2010 : Observed self-similarity of precipitation regimes over the tropical oceans . J. Climate , 23 , 2686 – 2698 , doi

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO; Madden and Julian 1972 ) is one of the most prominent features of the general circulation, having global impacts on weather and climate ( Zhang 2013 ). Despite the considerable attention given to the MJO in recent years, there remain significant gaps in understanding and prediction of the phenomenon ( Hung et al. 2013 ; Zhang et al. 2013 ). A field campaign was conducted over the Indian Ocean from October 2011 to March 2012 to investigate a

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