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Ali Behrangi, Koulin Hsu, Bisher Imam, and Soroosh Sorooshian

for estimation of small-scale rainfall. J. Atmos. Oceanic Technol. , 18 , 742 – 755 . Tsonis , A. A. , and G. A. Isaac , 1985 : On a new approach for instantaneous rain area delineation in the mid-latitudes using GOES data. J. Climate Appl. Meteor. , 24 , 1208 – 1218 . Turk , F. J. , and S. D. Miller , 2005 : Toward improved characterization of remotely sensed precipitation regimes with MODIS/AMSR-E blended data techniques. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens. , 43 , 1059

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Long S. Chiu and Roongroj Chokngamwong

1. Introduction Oceanic precipitation is a major component of the hydrological cycle and climate processes. The oceans cover about 70% of the earth’s surface where most of the freshwater exchange occurs. The major driving force for atmospheric circulations also comes from the latent heat release associated with precipitation processes. Global precipitation is linked to the surface energy budget through evaporation, which occurs mostly over oceans. The understanding of trends and variability of

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Shelley L. Knuth, Gregory J. Tripoli, Jonathan E. Thom, and George A. Weidner

). The Drygalski site, located at the tip of the Drygalski Ice Tongue, experiences katabatic wind flow, influences from mesocyclones, and orographic precipitation due to the nearby Transantarctic Mountains. The Ferrell site was chosen for its long climate record of nearly 30 yr. The Mary site, located at the base of Mulock Glacier in the Transantarctic Mountains, was chosen for the effects of katabatic winds and mesoscale vortices on this location. The Nascent site is in an area of little topographic

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Jonathan J. Gourley, Yang Hong, Zachary L. Flamig, Li Li, and Jiahu Wang

first evaluated in a bulk sense, then as a function of rainfall intensity using contingency table statistics. The ability of the algorithms to represent the diurnal cycle and hourly rainfall patterns is assessed. A summary of results and conclusions are provided in section 4 . 2. Study domain and rainfall algorithms a. Study area The analysis focuses on rainfall from June to August 2007 over the state of Oklahoma. The Oklahoma Climate Survey reported June 2007 as the wettest month on record since

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Cristian Mitrescu, Tristan L’Ecuyer, John Haynes, Steven Miller, and Joseph Turk

1. Introduction Clouds play an important role in the climate system through complex, nonlinear feedback processes involving radiation, chemistry, atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics, and surface–atmospheric coupling ( Held and Soden 2000 ). As an integral component of the earth’s hydrological cycle, clouds are essential in sustaining many forms of life on land through delivery of freshwater to the surface and subsurface storage aquifers in the form of precipitation. Given the widely varying

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