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W. L. Ellenburg, R. T. McNider, J. F. Cruise, and John R. Christy

the same between the datasets, the changes are very similar. Figure 4. Reconstructed land-cover changes in the southeastern United States from 1920 through 1992 for (a) forest and (b) cropland. Figure 5. LULC change in the southeastern United States by aggregate classifications from 1920 through 1992. 4.3. Temperature trend analysis The National Climate Data Center’s gridded annual minimum, maximum, and mean least squares temperature trends for the United States by climate division for the period

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Zhao Yang, Francina Dominguez, Hoshin Gupta, Xubin Zeng, and Laura Norman

systems (GIS) format into ASCII text files, culminating in 43 070 rows and 35 000 columns of information, to be used as input to the WRF Model. They were then superimposed on the default WRF Model MODIS 20-level classification scheme. 2.4. Lateral boundary conditions The same climate forcings were used to drive the WRF Model for the two different sets of land-use data. The lateral boundary conditions were obtained from the North American Regional Reanalysis (NARR) data ( Mesinger et al. 2006

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Andres Schmidt, Beverly E. Law, Mathias Göckede, Chad Hanson, Zhenlin Yang, and Stephen Conley

) averaged over the study period from 2012 to 2014, showing the strong climate gradient. (b) The elevation map indicates that the spatial precipitation regime is related to orographic features. The black outlined areas mark the boundaries of the nine Level III ecoregions in Oregon ( Thorson et al. 2003 ). The locations of the observation towers ( Table 1 ) were selected to optimally represent the distinct environmental conditions found in Oregon along a strong climate gradient and changes of land cover

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

al. 2002 ; Wang et al. 2014 ). The strength, frequency, and persistence of midlatitude extreme weather events are linked to midlatitude atmospheric circulation patterns and are projected to increase under future climate change ( Barriopedro et al. 2011 ; Reichstein et al. 2013 ; Zscheischler et al. 2015 ). There is strong evidence that amplified quasi-stationary planetary waves favor extreme weather events in the midlatitudes ( Coumou et al. 2015 ; Screen and Simmonds 2014 ). In particular, a

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