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Christopher R. Williams, Allen B. White, Kenneth S. Gage, and F. Martin Ralph

probability of simultaneous surface profiling radar and satellite PR observations of precipitation prevented a direct comparison of reflectivities and rain regime classification methodologies between the two instruments during NAME 2004. But statistical comparisons can be made by comparing the reflectivity distributions made at a single field site with the reflectivity distributions from the satellite observations around that field site. In conducting statistical comparisons, the question implicitly being

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Michelle Hallack-Alegria and David W. Watkins Jr.

variability can result from shifts in these regimes. Orographic effects, and the state’s proximity to the Pacific Ocean and Gulf of California, also play a role in the temporal and spatial variabilities of climate across the region ( Sheppard et al. 2002 ). Average annual precipitation in Sonora ranges from 15 cm (6 in.) in the coastal zone to 100 cm (40 in) in the mountain regions. Most of the area has a biseasonal rainfall pattern, with a significant portion of the annual precipitation attributed to the

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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

over Mexico and their modulation by the Southern Oscillation. Int. J. Climatol. , 10 , 377 – 386 . Cavazos , T. , and D. Rivas , 2004 : Variability of extreme precipitation events in Tijuana, Mexico. Climate Res. , 25 , 229 – 243 . Comrie , A. C. , and E. C. Glenn , 1998 : Principal components-based regionalization of precipitation regimes across the southwest United States and northern Mexico, with an application to monsoon precipitation variability. Climate Res. , 10 , 201

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X. Gao, J. Li, and S. Sorooshian

X. L. Wang , 1997 : Influence of the North American monsoon system on the U.S. summer precipitation regime. J. Climate , 10 , 2600 – 2622 . Higgins , R. W. , Y. Chen , and A. V. Douglas , 1999 : Interannual variability of the North American warm season precipitation regions. J. Climate , 12 , 653 – 680 . Higgins , R. W. , A. Leetmaa , Y. Xue , and A. Barnston , 2000 : Dominant factors influencing the seasonal predictability of U.S. precipitation and surface air

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Alberto M. Mestas-Nuñez, David B. Enfield, and Chidong Zhang

–NCAR reanalysis with its global coverage and long record can be useful for estimating short-term climate variability of the moisture flux divergence over the IAS. This conclusion is consistent with a recent comparison between the NCEP–NCAR global reanalysis and the NCEP regional reanalysis over North America on seasonal time scales ( Mo et al. 2005 ). Mestas-Nuñez et al. (2005) also reviewed what is known about the IAS as a source of moisture for U.S. precipitation during the boreal summer based on previous

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