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Jonathan E. Thielen and William A. Gallus Jr.

, but with wind and flooding threats being of particular note ( Gallus et al. 2008 , hereafter G08 ; Smith et al. 2012 ). While the exact details of convective morphology classification procedures differ between studies (e.g., Fowle and Roebber 2003 ; Done et al. 2004 ; Grams et al. 2006 ; G08 ; Duda and Gallus 2010 ; Smith et al. 2012 ), they most commonly rely upon subjective analysis of radar imagery to determine organizational patterns ( G08 ; Smith et al. 2012 ; Haberlie and Ashley

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Coltin Grasmick, Bart Geerts, David D. Turner, Zhien Wang, and T. M. Weckwerth

boundaries , which produced sufficient vertical lift to allow new cell formation and discrete forward propagation. In turn, the larger MCS produced stronger outflows that enabled bore development. 5. Convergent boundary classification and ensuing vertical displacement a. Lagged and immediate convection initiation The 15 July PECAN intensive observation period (IOP) provided a spatially dense set of radiosondes that were often launched just before and just after the passage of a radar fine line. Such

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Elizabeth N. Smith, Joshua G. Gebauer, Petra M. Klein, Evgeni Fedorovich, and Jeremy A. Gibbs

layer and turbulence regimes were found in Sun et al. (2012) , where a threshold wind speed was identified to maintain turbulence. Klein et al. (2016) found correlations between NLLJs and daytime stability and turbulence, but weak to no relationship between NLLJs and nighttime stability and turbulence. Several of the aforementioned studies found that near-surface flow parameters alone were often not representative of the changes observed in the NLLJ and the NBL. Classification of NLLJs based on

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John M. Peters, Erik R. Nielsen, Matthew D. Parker, Stacey M. Hitchcock, and Russ S. Schumacher

resulted in overrepresentation of and underrepresentation of CAPE) were primarily responsible for model errors. The distance parcels needed to be lifted to reach their LFCs that regulated the residence time required for parcels within the region of meso- α -scale lift to achieve CI, whereby parcels with higher initial LFCs required longer residence times (and thus greater vertical lifting) than parcels with lower initial LFCs. In a regime characterized by southwesterly low-level flow, the length of

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