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K-M. Lau and H-T. Wu

. J. Atmos. Sci. , 51 , 1089 – 1099 . Jakob , C. , and C. Schumacher , 2008 : Precipitation and latent heating characteristics of the major tropical western Pacific cloud regimes. J. Climate , 21 , 4348 – 4364 . Johnson , R. H. , T. M. Rickenbach , S. A. Rutledge , P. E. Ciesielski , and W. H. Schubert , 1999 : Trimodal characteristics of tropical convection. J. Climate , 12 , 2379 – 2418 . Kemball-Cook , S. R. , and B. C. Weare , 2001 : The onset of convection

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Mircea Grecu, William S. Olson, Chung-Lin Shie, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, and Wei-Kuo Tao

regional heating estimates, most notably (but not exclusively) in the eastern Pacific where estimated lower-tropospheric heating is significantly greater than the PR training estimates, and (b) to produce a useful model of the random errors in heating estimates that covers the range of space–time scales considered in weather and climate applications. Regarding (a), regional or climate-regime dependent training of the heating method may be required, since the current method is only designed to minimize

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Shoichi Shige, Yukari N. Takayabu, Satoshi Kida, Wei-Kuo Tao, Xiping Zeng, Chie Yokoyama, and Tristan L’Ecuyer

vertical resolution (250 m at nadir) and quasi-vertical beam of the PR allow it to identify a bright band for a higher percentage of all echoes than can a quasi-horizontally scanning ground radar ( Schumacher and Houze 2000 ). Therefore, the classification between convective and stratiform regions of mesoscale convective systems (MCS) has become more straightforward, utilizing the presence of the bright band ( Awaka et al. 1998 , 2007 , 2009 ). Because differences in diabatic heating profiles exist

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Tristan S. L’Ecuyer and Greg McGarragh

1987 ; Lee et al. 2001 ) and the strength of the Hadley and Walker circulations (e.g., Slingo and Slingo 1988 ; 1991 ; Hartmann et al. 1984 ; Sherwood et al. 1994 ; Schumacher et al. 2004 ). The common conclusion to be drawn from these studies is the importance of feedback between clouds, precipitation, and their impact on atmospheric diabatic heating. Understanding these feedback processes is critical for making progress in climate research ( Stephens 2005 ; Bony et al. 2006 ). Although

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Xianan Jiang, Duane E. Waliser, William S. Olson, Wei-Kuo Tao, Tristan S. L’Ecuyer, Jui-Lin Li, Baijun Tian, Yuk L. Yung, Adrian M. Tompkins, Stephen E. Lang, and Mircea Grecu

heating from ERA-40 and NCEP reanalyses: Intercomparisons with TRMM. J. Climate , 22 , 414 – 428 . Chang , C-P. , and H. Lim , 1988 : Kelvin wave-CISK: A possible mechanism for the 30–50-day oscillations. J. Atmos. Sci. , 45 , 1709 – 1720 . Chen , Y. H. , and A. D. Del Genio , 2009 : Evaluation of tropical cloud regimes in observations and a general circulation model. Climate Dyn. , 32 , 355 – 369 . Cho , H. R. , and D. Pendlebury , 1997 : Wave CISK of equatorial waves

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Yasu-Masa Kodama, Masaki Katsumata, Shuichi Mori, Sinsuke Satoh, Yuki Hirose, and Hiroaki Ueda

1. Introduction The global distribution of precipitation is related to water circulation in the climate system and to latent heating (LH) in the atmosphere, which is an important heat source driving atmospheric circulation ( Nigam et al. 2000 ). Characteristics of precipitation change greatly over a wide spectrum according to precipitation type and surface and atmospheric conditions. Satellite observations of clouds have provided useful but indirect information on precipitation. Precipitation

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