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Kevin Bachmann, Christian Keil, George C. Craig, Martin Weissmann, and Christian A. Welzbacher

so-called EY product of DWD, which provides radar-derived accumulated precipitation over central Europe with a horizontal resolution of 1 km × 1 km every 5 min. The EY product was interpolated to the COSMO grid and the precipitation was accumulated hourly to facilitate comparisons to the forecasts. It covers the entire investigation domain of this study. 3. Metrics and regime classification The present study focuses on the practical predictability of convective precipitation and applies elaborate

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Christian Barthlott and Corinna Hoose

large-scale forcing is strong (weak). The daily averages of this time scale confirm our classification done by visual inspection of synoptic weather charts ( Table 3 ). Table 3. Analyzed days and classification of synoptic forcing with the convective adjustment time scale τ . As can be seen in Figs. 3a–c , the weather regime in central Europe is dominated by a ridge on all days with weak synoptic forcing. The axis of the ridge lies over France on both cases from 2009 (30 June and 2 July) and

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Joël Arnault, Thomas Rummler, Florian Baur, Sebastian Lerch, Sven Wagner, Benjamin Fersch, Zhenyu Zhang, Noah Kerandi, Christian Keil, and Harald Kunstmann

uncertainties in turbulence parameterization and terrestrial water flow representation on precipitation. The second objective is to assess if these impacts depend on the weather regime (e.g., Barthlott et al. 2011 ; Keil et al. 2014 ) or the spatial variability in surface fluxes (e.g., Pielke 2001 ). The third objective is to assess the skill of the WRF and WRF-Hydro simulations in reproducing observed daily precipitation, as well as observed daily discharge for WRF-Hydro. The method to address these

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

with thin, dashed lines. The orange dot denotes the location of the center of the ECMWF grid box that was used in the evaluation of the ensemble forecast (cf. Fig. 11 ). The green dot indicates the location of the Phu Lien radar station, and the blue dots denote the locations of the Bach Long Vy (WMO station ID 48839) and Beihai (WMO station ID 59644) radiosonde stations. According to D.-Q. Nguyen et al. (2014) , northeastern Vietnam can be separated into two distinct climate zones, termed N2 and

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Michael Maier-Gerber, Michael Riemer, Andreas H. Fink, Peter Knippertz, Enrico Di Muzio, and Ron McTaggart-Cowan

.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2730:BITC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2003)131<2730:BITC>2.0.CO;2 Davis , C. A. , and L. F. Bosart , 2004 : The TT problem: Forecasting the tropical transition of cyclones . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 85 , 1657 – 1662 , https://doi.org/ 10.1 175/BAMS-85-11-1657 . Elsner , J. B. , G. S. Lehmiller , and T. B. Kimberlain , 1996 : Objective classification of Atlantic hurricanes . J. Climate , 9 , 2880 – 2889 , https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0442(1996)009<2880:OCOAH>2.0.CO;2 . 10

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