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Nicolas Barrier, Christophe Cassou, Julie Deshayes, and Anne-Marie Treguier

. Rev. , 115 , 1083 – 1126 . Barrier , N. , A.-M. Treguier , C. Cassou , and J. Deshayes , 2013 : Impact of the winter North-Atlantic weather regimes on subtropical sea-surface height variability . Climate Dyn. , 41, 1159–1171. Bellucci , A. , S. Gualdi , E. Scoccimarro , and A. Navarra , 2008 : NAO–ocean circulation interactions in a coupled general circulation model . Climate Dyn. , 31 , 759 – 777 . Biastoch , A. , C. W. Böning , J. Getzlaff , J

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Antonio Espejo, Paula Camus, Iñigo J. Losada, and Fernando J. Méndez

most energetic situations with extremely deep lows centered over different parts of the NA. A further analysis reveals the existence of well-known climate regimes such as the fluid phase of +NAO (CT 6) (see Hurrell and Deser 2009 ). Moreover, different nuances with remarkable effects on waves of the +NAO are displayed in the lattice, which demonstrates nonlinearities in the NAO variability. Note the asymmetries of several possible +NAO states, exhibiting different orientation of the isobars

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Frank Kauker and Hans von Storch

with the different “circulation regimes,” deviate somewhat from Backhaus’ hypothesis. The present analysis is meant to describe the statistics of the large-scale circulation in the North Sea. It is not meant to isolate extreme events, which by definition are rare events. Thus, it is not surprising that previous classifications of situations, related to heavy storm surges in the German Bight ( Dolata et al. 1983 ) are not reflected in the present analysis. The paper relies exclusively on model

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Ken X. Zhao, Andrew L. Stewart, and James C. McWilliams

matches the properties of the PIG ( Jacobs et al. 2011 ). The imposed stratification in this case (and all our cases) has an internal baroclinic deformation radius km. The regime classifications, which will be discussed in sections 4 – 6 , are also directly applicable for any stratification as long as the deformation radius is less than half the width of the channel (i.e., the boundary currents on opposite sides do not interact). The majority of the following figures will show the dynamics of the

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A. A. Grachev and C. W. Fairall

that the swell drives the wind in the direction of the swell propagation, that is, induces “wave-driven wind” (cf. Harris 1966 ). Unfortunately, only a limited number of observations in this regime were obtained during SCOPE. Note that the above classifications are based on the SCOPE data, and in the general case they should be dependent on the significant wave height, H S , or wave slope (see discussion above). We now briefly consider the behavior of the stress vector within the WBL in the

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Alon Stern, Louis-Philippe Nadeau, and David Holland

(right) τ 0 = 0.12 N m −2 . (top to bottom) Shelfbreak width parameters W = 10, 30, 50, 200, and 500 km are shown. Figure 3a shows the maximum value of the stability criterion Γ [see Eq. (10) ] obtained in our simulations for different shelfbreak widths and wind forcings. The dashed line shows the condition of baroclinic instability at the center of the shelf break: . Figure 3a shows that the classification defined above for each of the three regimes also applies roughly to the stability

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Takuya Hasegawa and Kimio Hanawa

1. Introduction A number of studies on SST and atmospheric anomaly fields on the global or Pacific basin scale have increased our understanding of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) event (e.g., Bjerknes 1966 ; Weare et al. 1976 ; Rasmusson and Carpenter 1982 ; Hsiung and Newell 1983 ; Kawamura 1984 ). It has been recognized that an ENSO event's growth is closely related to a tropical ocean–atmosphere interaction, and it impacts the global climate system through atmospheric

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Michael M. Whitney, David S. Ullman, and Daniel L. Codiga

paper concentrates mostly on low wind regimes with different tidal and river discharge conditions, since Whitney and Codiga (2011) studied the response to wind events. Background on LIS, prior research, and analytical scalings for exchange-dominated estuaries ( MacCready and Geyer 2010 ) are described in the next section. Section 4 describes the main features of the subtidal salinity and velocity fields, observations and corresponding model results, salinity and velocity fields for different

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N. S. Banas, B. M. Hickey, P. MacCready, and J. A. Newton

response of Chesapeake Bay salinity to climate-induced changes in streamflow. Limnol. Oceanogr , 45 , 1764 – 1772 . Hansen , D. V. , and M. Rattray Jr. , 1965 : Gravitational circulation in straits and estuaries. J. Mar. Res , 23 , 104 – 122 . Hansen , D. V. , and M. Rattray Jr. , 1966 : New dimensions in estuary classification. Limnol. Oceanogr , 11 , 319 – 326 . Hickey , B. M. , 1989 : Patterns and processes of circulation over the shelf and slope. Coastal

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Yign Noh, Woo Geun Cheon, and Siegfried Raasch

instability (EXP D). Note also that, according to Molemaker and Dijkstra (2000) , baroclinic instability usually occurs at the very early stage of convective deepening, that is, hβ ∼ 0.01, at which the erosion of radial buoyancy gradients is insignificant. e. A regime diagram for the classification of convection The analyses of the simulation results so far showed that it tends to become localized convection as the intensity of a cyclonic gyre increases and the surface buoyancy loss decreases, or

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