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Clark Evans, Kimberly M. Wood, Sim D. Aberson, Heather M. Archambault, Shawn M. Milrad, Lance F. Bosart, Kristen L. Corbosiero, Christopher A. Davis, João R. Dias Pinto, James Doyle, Chris Fogarty, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Christian M. Grams, Kyle S. Griffin, John Gyakum, Robert E. Hart, Naoko Kitabatake, Hilke S. Lentink, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, William Perrie, Julian F. D. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Michael Riemer, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Yujuan Sun, and Fuqing Zhang

produce hazards (such as Hurricane Sandy) and/or generate hazards downstream [e.g., Hurricane Katia in 2011 as described by Grams and Blumer (2015) ; Typhoon Nabi in 2005 as described by Harr et al. (2008) ]. Fig . 1. A two-stage ET classification based on Klein et al. (2000) . The onset and completion times correspond to the definitions of Evans and Hart (2003) . The “tropical” and “extratropical” labels indicate approximately how the system would be regarded by an operational forecast center

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Fiona Lomas, and Thilo Kühne

different European countries and by identifying the major influences on the development of these databases (e.g., the First and Second World War, the socialist regimes in eastern Europe). As we will show, prior to World War II, more tornado research occurred in Europe compared with the United States. Third, understanding how severe convective storms and their associated phenomena (e.g., tornadoes) would change in a future climate remains a great challenge (e.g., Brooks 2013 ; Tippett et al. 2015

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John Molinari and Michael Dudek

of the closure issue will not be discussed in thecurrent paper. A conceptual classification of closureassumptions has been provided by Arakawa and Chen(1987). The unparameterized or explicit condensationmethod allows clouds to exist only when grid-scale saturation occurs. To the extent possible in a hydrostaticmodel, the cloud is directly simulated on the grid. Thisdefinition of the explicit method holds, regardless ofthe level of microphysics, from the simplest form whereno cloud stage is

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