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Bowen Zhou and Fotini Katopodes Chow

, especially the east side. The valley has a semiarid climate with low, sparse vegetation. Some evergreen trees are found at the upper elevations of both valley sidewalls. Fig . 1. Elevation contours (km) for Owens Valley region: (a) the 2400-m grid with the 240- and 50-m grid shown within and (b) the 240-m grid. Contour intervals are 0.4 km. The location of the NCAR ISFF central tower is marked by a circle, the DLR lidar by a diamond. Its cross-valley scan direction (RHI80) is marked by the solid line. A

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Juerg Schmidli, Brian Billings, Fotini K. Chow, Stephan F. J. de Wekker, James Doyle, Vanda Grubišić, Teddy Holt, Qiangfang Jiang, Katherine A. Lundquist, Peter Sheridan, Simon Vosper, C. David Whiteman, Andrzej A. Wyszogrodzki, and Günther Zängl

(SDR). The generation of the land surface scheme according to the classification of Sellers et al. (1997) is listed in the column LSM. Some characteristics of the soil–surface–atmosphere coupling are listed under the corresponding column including the temperature used in the surface energy budget ( T sfc ), the resistances considered in calculating the total resistance ( r sfc ) to the heat transfer between the surface ( T sfc ) and the lowest model level, and the minimum total wind speed used

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Stefano Serafin, Lukas Strauss, and Vanda Grubišić

of large-scale airflow by the underlying terrain ( Jackson et al. 2013 ). Thermally driven winds are baroclinic circulations caused by diurnally reversing thermal gradients at distinct spatial scales, for instance, an individual slope or the whole length of a valley ( Zardi and Whiteman 2013 ). Strong dynamically driven winds, in particular, are a prominent feature of Owens Valley’s climate. In fact, there is an abundance of anecdotal evidence for the occurrence of downslope windstorms on the

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