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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

-scale atmospheric behavior or vice versa. This is typically investigated by employing a classification scheme, which characterizes the wide variety of atmospheric conditions for a certain location over time into a manageable sample of representative weather types or patterns ( Davis and Kalkstein 1990 ; Yarnal 1993 ). Many different strategies exist for producing classifications, but one that has emerged recently in climate literature, which is also ideally suited for connecting weather patterns to discrete

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B. S. Felzer, Carol R. Ember, R. Cheng, and M. Jiang

://ehrafworldcultures.yale.edu/webhelp/#Subsistence/subsistence.html ) follows the classification from eHRAF World Cultures, as does the main geographic region for those societies in eHRAF World Cultures; the Ethnographic Atlas (via https://d-place.org/contributions/EA ) provided subsistence information for those SCCS societies that are not yet in eHRAF World Cultures. a. Extreme indices To develop a set of extreme indices to represent droughts and the potential for floods, we have chosen from the 27 core indices developed at the Expert Team on Climate Change Detection

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Detlef Jahn

identify a representative range of temperature differences in each country, climatic maps referring to Wladimir Köppen’s climate regions has been used ( Köppen 1900 , 1918 ; Köppen and Geiger 1936 ). Among all other classification systems, Köppen’s prevailed ( Sanderson 1999 ; Essenwanger and Landsberg 2001 ) and his system has been used recently for estimating global warming and greenhouse scenarios ( Barnett 2005 ). In this context, it has been concluded that in comparison to other typologies

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Dana R. N. Brown, Todd J. Brinkman, David L. Verbyla, Caroline L. Brown, Helen S. Cold, and Teresa N. Hollingsworth

become more dynamic and unpredictable ( Brinkman et al. 2016 ; McNeeley and Shulski 2011 ). Locals have described many changes in river ice regimes that are likely linked to climate change, including earlier breakup, less “violent” and quieter breakup with fewer ice jams and flooding, delayed freeze-up, longer freeze-up seasons, thinner and more dangerous ice, and more open water during winter ( Herman-Mercer et al. 2011 ; Wilson et al. 2015 ). Some of these changes have led to travel safety

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Lee Tryhorn

miles of estuaries ( DEC 2000 ). Stormwater runoff is also a major culprit in urban flooding and changes to the precipitation regime are intensifying this problem. Increases in the frequency and magnitude of extreme rainfall events have been documented in New York State ( Fig. 1 ). These changes are among the largest seen within the United States ( DeGaetano 2009 ). Climate change projections suggest that these increases will continue ( Frumhoff et al. 2007 ). Changes in land use are also likely to

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Alan E. Stewart, Jeffrey K. Lazo, Rebecca E. Morss, and Julie L. Demuth

geographically consistent weather patterns with perceptions and uses of weather information and with weather salience, we classified each respondent into one of three major climate zones using the Köppen classification ( Peel et al. 2007 ). This classification was accomplished by using Geographical Information System (GIS) software to determine the Köppen classification of each U.S. zip code on the North American continent. We then used the respondent’s zip code to determine the climate zone in which they

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Matthew Berman and Jennifer I. Schmidt

multidimensional approach consistent with Arent et al. (2014) to summarize what is known with differing levels of certainty about the direction and magnitude of the potential economic effects. The first step is to enumerate projected effects of climate change on land and marine temperatures, the cryosphere, wildfire regimes, and terrestrial and marine ecosystems that are likely to affect human activities. We use the U.S. National Climate Assessment—Alaska Regional Technical Report ( Markon et al. 2012 ) as a

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L. Bruce Railsback

climatological and historical anomaly of China The insignificance of China to Fig. 2 and Table 2 is striking both with regard both to climate and to empire. From the climatic perspective, China's absence from the regions of regular moderate rainfall might be surprising to persons familiar with the widely accepted Köppen–Geiger classification of climate ( Köppen 1900 ; Geiger 1954 ; Kottek et al. 2006 ; Peel et al. 2007 ). The Köppen–Geiger system is to climatologists the “apotheosis” of climate

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Johanna Nalau, Susanne Becken, Johanna Schliephack, Meg Parsons, Cilla Brown, and Brendan Mackey

of Samoa, where much of the formal climate adaptation activity sits outside the traditional governance systems and knowledge. The insights from indigenous peoples in Samoa and Australia, like those from Inuit in Canada and Sami in Sweden, raise broader queries about the classification, use, and incorporation of ITK (at the community, national, and international levels and within specific sociopolitical regimes). Projects that seek to include ITK in environmental management are, as Diver (2017

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Jonathan Friedrich, Jannik Stahl, Gijsbert Hoogendoorn, and Jennifer M. Fitchett

Africa . Euro Economica , 37 , 104 – 118 . Peel , M. C. , B. L. Finlayson , and T. A. McMahon , 2007 : Updated world map of the Köppen–Geiger climate classification . Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. , 11 , 1633 – 1644 , https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 . 10.5194/hess-11-1633-2007 Perkins , D. P. , and K. G. Debbage , 2016 : Weather and tourism: Thermal comfort and zoological park visitor attendance . Atmosphere , 7 , 44 , https://doi.org/10.3390/atmos7030044 . 10

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