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Yumeng Tao, Xiaogang Gao, Kuolin Hsu, Soroosh Sorooshian, and Alexander Ihler

1. Introduction Weather forecasts, climate variability, hydrology, and water resources management require sufficient information about precipitation, one of the most important variables in the natural water cycle. Precipitation observation, monitoring, and analysis tools provide fundamental information needed in order for society to cope with increasing extreme hydrometeorological events in recent decades. Satellite-based precipitation products mainly estimate precipitation indirectly based on

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Mark S. Kulie, Lisa Milani, Norman B. Wood, Samantha A. Tushaus, Ralf Bennartz, and Tristan S. L’Ecuyer

altered by a warming climate at higher latitudes (e.g., Burnett et al. 2003 ; Kunkel et al. 2009 ; Notaro et al. 2014 ). Recent research using model output has also posited that future Arctic precipitation may substantially increase, largely driven by local surface evaporation effects—the prime mechanism causing overwater shallow snowfall—due to diminished sea ice coverage ( Bintanja and Selten 2014 ). The CloudSat data record serves as a valuable reference to monitor future changes in shallow

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Toshi Matsui, Jiun-Dar Chern, Wei-Kuo Tao, Stephen Lang, Masaki Satoh, Tempei Hashino, and Takuji Kubota

. , 1998 : Early results on rain type classification by the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar. Proc. 8th URSI Commission F Open Symp. , Aveiro, Portugal, International Union of Radio Science, 143 – 146 . Bonan, B. G. , Oleson K. W. , Vertenstein M. , Levis S. , Zeng X. , Dai Y. , Dickinson R. E. , and Yang Z.-L. , 2002 : The land surface climatology of the Community Land Model coupled to the NCAR Community Climate Model . J. Climate , 15 , 3123 – 3149

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Yiwen Mei, Efthymios I. Nikolopoulos, Emmanouil N. Anagnostou, and Marco Borga

used. The second product is the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Climate Prediction Center morphing technique (CMORPH, hereafter abbreviated as CM), which utilizes multisatellite-based MW rain estimates propagated spatiotemporally by IR-derived motion vectors ( Joyce et al. 2004 ). Recently, a bias adjustment procedure was developed based on daily gauge estimates (30 000 gauges worldwide; Xie et al. 2011 ) and was applied on the entire CMORPH record to provide the gauge

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Clément Guilloteau, Rémy Roca, and Marielle Gosset

the mean rain intensity. The relative importance of each term in explaining rainfall variability depends on the considered resolution and the type of rainfall regime. Over the tropical continents, where a few hours of rain per year can produce most of the annual rain depth, the variability of the precipitation fraction is a key determinant ( Morrissey et al. 1994 ; D’Amato and Lebel 1998 ; Kebe et al. 2005 ). In West Africa, most rainfall is provided by organized mesoscale convective systems

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