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John M. Peters, Christopher J. Nowotarski, and Gretchen L. Mullendore

larger updraft core buoyancy than ordinary convection if both share the same thermodynamic environment (e.g., P19 ). Supercells also exhibit storm motions that are markedly different from the mean winds in the cloud-bearing layer, which is a consequence of continuous updraft propagation (e.g., Rotunno and Klemp 1982 , 1985 ; Weisman and Rotunno 2000 ), and often results in stronger low-level storm-relative winds and inflow ( P19 ). The low-level dynamic accelerations that are responsible for

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

impact is much larger in the developing world, where agriculture typically occupies a larger percentage of the labor force and food insecurity is a major concern ( Brown and Funk 2008 ). Given the magnitude of projected changes in drought from climate models ( Dai 2011 ), the potential increase in susceptibility to droughts is alarming. Even though Sheffield et al. (2012) found little evidence indicating a change in the occurrence of drought events globally over the past 60 years, the

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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia

Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) shortwave data. Luo et al. (2003) used observed forcing data at Oklahoma Mesonet stations and Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM)/Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) stations over the southern Great Plains to evaluate NLDAS downward solar radiation, downward longwave radiation, 10-m wind speed, specific humidity, 2-m air temperature, surface pressure, and precipitation. The results indicated good agreement between NLDAS forcing data and

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Richard Seager, Lisa Goddard, Jennifer Nakamura, Naomi Henderson, and Dong Eun Lee

subtropics and a poleward expansion of subtropical dry zones ( Solomon et al. (2007) ; Seager et al. 2010b ; Cayan et al. 2010 ) and also a shift to more extreme precipitation events. Was the TexMex drought a case of such anthropogenically induced climate change? It would certainly be rash to draw such a conclusion given that past droughts in the U.S. Southwest and Plains have been reliably attributed to forcing of atmospheric circulation anomalies by naturally occurring cool tropical Pacific and, to a

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Hailan Wang, Siegfried Schubert, Randal Koster, Yoo-Geun Ham, and Max Suarez

where the amplitude of the anomalies exceeds two standard deviations. The substantial differences in the record heat and drought that developed over the United States during 2011 and 2012 offer an important opportunity to assess further the differing roles of SST forcing in the development of such extreme events. The 2011 and 2012 U.S. droughts were accompanied by SST anomalies that had important similarities as well as some differences. Figure 2 shows that La Niña conditions existed in the

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Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Jason Otkin, Xiwu Zhan, Kingtse Mo, Mark Svoboda, Brian Wardlow, and Agustin Pimstein

measurements are strongly tied to observations, but may have limits in spatial sampling and portability to other domains that lack dense in situ monitoring networks. Prognostic land surface models (LSMs) can provide quantitative estimates of a full suite of hydrologic variables, adding value to the precipitation data used as a primary input. However, model output may have significant biases because of inaccurate modeling assumptions, observational errors in the forcing data, and a reliance on surface

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

NOAA’s Climate Program Office, which set up a Drought Task Force (DTF) with the overarching goal of advancing drought understanding, monitoring, and prediction through coordinated research activities that address a number of NIDIS-relevant scientific objectives. These include (i) the scientific understanding of the weather and climatic mechanisms that lead to the onset, maintenance, and recovery of drought; (ii) improving drought prediction skill by identifying and exploiting sources of drought

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

and other drought indicators such as the USDM and soil moisture anomalies from the North American Land Data Assimilation System ( Xia et al. 2012a , 2012b ). Meteorological inputs to the PM computation were obtained from the NARR dataset. Because the ALEXI algorithm relies on the morning rise in LST to compute ET, it is only applicable to satellite pixels that remain clear during the morning interval used to compute the change in LST. A cloud mask algorithm is used to remove most cloudy pixels

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