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Pierre Friedlingstein, Malte Meinshausen, Vivek K. Arora, Chris D. Jones, Alessandro Anav, Spencer K. Liddicoat, and Reto Knutti

-estimate projections and uncertainty ranges for emission scenarios, there are two major sources of uncertainty that need to be taken into account. The first relates to physical processes and feedbacks, and the uncertainty they induce on climate response for a given greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration and aerosol forcing in terms of the global-mean temperature response, and regional climate change; while the second relates to carbon cycle processes and feedbacks, with the associated uncertainty on the relationship

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V. Brovkin, L. Boysen, V. K. Arora, J. P. Boisier, P. Cadule, L. Chini, M. Claussen, P. Friedlingstein, V. Gayler, B. J. J. M. van den Hurk, G. C. Hurtt, C. D. Jones, E. Kato, N. de Noblet-Ducoudré, F. Pacifico, J. Pongratz, and M. Weiss

-Ducoudré et al. (2012) and Boisier et al. (2012) analyzed the mechanisms that explain those differences, and Pitman et al. (2012) showed that LULCC systematically affected temperature extremes. Van der Molen et al. (2011) showed that feedbacks in local cloud cover are important to explain differences between tropical and extratropical temperature responses to LULCC. The LUCID experiments were designed to investigate the LULCC effects on climate using prescribed sea surface temperatures (SSTs) and

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Jörg Schwinger, Jerry F. Tjiputra, Christoph Heinze, Laurent Bopp, James R. Christian, Marion Gehlen, Tatiana Ilyina, Chris D. Jones, David Salas-Mélia, Joachim Segschneider, Roland Séférian, and Ian Totterdell

O. Boucher , 2009 : Carbon dioxide induced stomatal closure increases radiative forcing via a rapid reduction in low cloud . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 36 , L02703 , doi: 10.1029/2008GL036273 . Dufresne , J.-L. , L. Fairhead , H. Le Treut , M. Berthelot , L. Bopp , P. Ciais , P. Friedlingstein , and P. Monfray , 2002 : On the magnitude of positive feedback between future climate change and the carbon cycle . Geophys. Res. Lett. , 29 , doi: 10.1029/2001GL013777

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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

time scales: first, we analyze the long-term trend, which provides information on the model capability to simulate the temporal evolution over the twentieth century given greenhouse gas (GHG) and aerosol radiative forcing. Second, we analyze the interannual variability (IAV) of physical variables as a constraint on the model capability to simulate realistic climate patterns that influence both ocean and continental carbon fluxes ( Rayner et al. 2008 ). Third, we evaluate the modeled seasonal cycle

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Vivek K. Arora, George J. Boer, Pierre Friedlingstein, Michael Eby, Chris D. Jones, James R. Christian, Gordon Bonan, Laurent Bopp, Victor Brovkin, Patricia Cadule, Tomohiro Hajima, Tatiana Ilyina, Keith Lindsay, Jerry F. Tjiputra, and Tongwen Wu

state means that the comparison of the behavior of the coupled carbon–climate system across models is more straightforwardly investigated for a common scenario. The fifth phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP5; http://cmip-pcmdi.llnl.gov/cmip5/forcing.html ) ( Taylor et al. 2012 ) provides a common framework for comparing and assessing Earth system processes in the context of climate simulations. A 140-yr-long simulation in which atmospheric CO 2 concentration increases at a

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

and dynamic change of plant coverage. We focus on two suites of CMIP5 experiments—concentration-driven historical and representative concentration pathway 4.5 (RCP4.5). The former is also referred to as the twentieth-century simulations from the mid-nineteenth century to near present and is suitable for comparison with observations. The RCP4.5 experiment provides a future projection of climate from 2006 to 2100 based on a mitigation or stabilization scenario in which the total radiative forcing is

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