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Gabriëlle J. M. De Lannoy, Paul R. Houser, Niko E. C. Verhoest, and Valentijn R. N. Pauwels

optimal perturbation magnitude and structure for the forcings, model structure, state, and parameters. It is often useful to tune the filter by adapting the error variance—for example, by inflation, to avoid model divergence in case of an underestimated a priori error covariance. An adaptive inflation factor in time was proposed by Anderson (2007) , who adjusted the variance of each state component, whereas the correlation between pairs of components remained unchanged. Mitchell and Houtekamer (2000

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Damian J. Barrett and Luigi J. Renzullo

-band radiation is used. Accurate soil moisture retrieval requires information on surface emissivity, canopy optical thickness, vegetation and soil temperatures, and proportions of soil clay and sand contents. However, the quality of the retrieval may be compromised by radio frequency interference (RFI), standing water, scattering by dense woody vegetation, and liquid water droplets in overlying clouds ( Njoku et al. 2003 ; de Jeu and Owe 2003 ; Wagner et al. 2007 ). In data assimilation, it is of interest

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