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Yohei Yamada and Masaki Satoh

radiative forcing and its change are closely related to cloud properties such as cloud fraction, thickness, cloud sizes, and the amount of ice and liquid water contents. In particular, one needs to understand how IWP and LWP change because of global warming in order to identify the factors responsible for the changes in cloud forcing ( Zelinka et al. 2012b ). Satoh et al. (2012a) have argued, using a global nonhydrostatic model (NICAM) with explicit cloud microphysics, that the IWP decreases under a

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Michael Wehner, Prabhat, Kevin A. Reed, Dáithí Stone, William D. Collins, and Julio Bacmeister

, called SSTplus2_2xCO2, combines the uniform addition of 2°C to the 1990 climatological SST and 660 ppm value of atmospheric CO 2 . Sulfate and other trace aerosol concentrations are fixed to 2000 climatological values from a related coupled model simulation and are the same for all experiments. Analyses in this paper are confined to global measures of tropical storm behavior. While the potential for different responses to forcing changes in different basins is significant, such differences are likely

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Malcolm J. Roberts, Pier Luigi Vidale, Matthew S. Mizielinski, Marie-Estelle Demory, Reinhard Schiemann, Jane Strachan, Kevin Hodges, Ray Bell, and Joanne Camp

general circulation models (CGCMs) implemented at horizontal resolutions that allow multicentennial integrations under a variety of forcing scenarios, often with full Earth system biogeochemistry components. To address such issues, a long-standing collaboration exists between the Met Office and the University of Reading to develop “weather resolving” climate models, which are able to capture typical weather features such as fronts and atmospheric rivers (as found in a weather forecast) while also

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Young-Kwon Lim, Siegfried D. Schubert, Oreste Reale, Myong-In Lee, Andrea M. Molod, and Max J. Suarez

and Suarez (1992) ] on GCM hurricane forecasts. Both studies agreed on that explicit representation of cloud processes produces a larger number of TC events, with stronger intensity and longer life cycles ( Reed and Jablonowski 2011 ; Stan 2012 ). However, the details of the atmospheric processes responsible for altering TC activity were not the focus of the above studies. Some of the atmospheric responses to changes in deep convective activity are discussed in Zhao et al. (2012) , which focuses

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Enrico Scoccimarro, Silvio Gualdi, Gabriele Villarini, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Ming Zhao, Kevin Walsh, and Antonio Navarra

, variability, and change with global warming. The main difference is that HiRAM2.2 incorporates a new land model [GFDL land model version 3 (LM3)]. The atmospheric dynamical core of the model was also updated to improve efficiency and stability. As a result of these changes, there are minor retunings of the atmospheric parameters in the cloud and surface boundary layer parameterizations necessary to achieve the top-of-atmosphere (TOA) radiative balance. This model is also the version of HiRAM used for the

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Gabriele Villarini, David A. Lavers, Enrico Scoccimarro, Ming Zhao, Michael F. Wehner, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Thomas R. Knutson, and Kevin A. Reed

combination of changes in both CO 2 and SST because of the potentially opposite effects associated with the changes in these two forcings. One of the main objectives of the U.S. CLIVAR working group, and these experiments, is to quantify changes in tropical cyclone characteristics in a warming climate. This paper is organized as follows. The next section contains a description of the data, methods, and models used. Section 3 presents the results, and is followed by section 4 , in which we summarize

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Hiroyuki Murakami, Pang-Chi Hsu, Osamu Arakawa, and Tim Li

regimes or under different rates of anthropogenic/natural forcings. However, observations of global TC tracks are limited prior to the commencement of satellite-based observations in the 1970s. This is a topic to be addressed in future studies. Our study also did not consider differences in TC-detection schemes, which may introduce some uncertainties into projected future changes. For example, Camargo (2013) shows relative increases in projected global TC genesis frequency for a few CMIP5 models

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