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Xiaolei Niu and Rachel T. Pinker

the changes in ozone, cloudiness, and surface albedo were dealt with in Bernhard et al. (2007) . In a comprehensive investigation by Dong et al. (2010) using 10 yr of cloud and radiative flux observations collected by the Department of Energy (DOE) Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program at the North Slope of Alaska (NSA), it is reported that the longwave cloud-radiative forcing (CRF) has a high positive correlations (0.8–0.9) with cloud fraction, liquid water path, and radiating

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Ivana Cerovečki, Lynne D. Talley, and Matthew R. Mazloff

. Tsumune , 2009 : Sensitivity of CFC-11 uptake to physical initial conditions and interannually varying surface forcing in a global ocean model . Ocean Modell. , 29 , 58 – 65 . Darnell , W. L. , W. F. Staylor , S. K. Gupta , N. A. Ritchey , and A. C. Wilber , 1992 : Seasonal variation of surface radiation budget derived from International Satellite Cloud Climatology Project C1 Data . J. Geophys. Res. , 97 , 15 741 – 15 760 . da Silva , A. M. , and G. White , 1996

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

: Glossary of Meteorology . 2nd ed. Amer. Meteor. Soc., 855 pp . Gorodetskaya , I. V. , and L.-B. Tremblay , 2008 : Arctic cloud properties and radiative forcing from observations and their role in sea ice decline predicted by the NCAR CCSM3 model during the 21st century . Arctic Sea Ice Decline: Observations, Projections, Mechanisms, and Implications, Geophys. Monogr., Vol. 180, Amer. Geophys. Union, 47–62 . Inoue , J. , J. Liu , J. O. Pinto , and J. A. Curry , 2006

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Richard I. Cullather and Michael G. Bosilovich

conducted using reanalyses that have led to an improved understanding of high-latitude teleconnection patterns (e.g., Thompson and Wallace 1998 ; Hurrell et al. 2001 ; Genthon et al. 2003 ; Monaghan and Bromwich 2008 ) and the identification of prevailing atmospheric conditions during recent, dramatic reductions in Arctic perennial sea ice cover ( Ogi and Wallace 2007 ). Reanalyses are also used as first-order validation for climate models and provide necessary boundary forcing conditions for ocean

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, Kei Yoshimura, and Masao Kanamitsu

). Here, to improve the resolution of the SST forcing in the DPRD10 reanalysis, we employed daily 0.25° × 0.25° resolution optimum interpolation SST analysis version 2 ( Reynolds et al. 2007 ). This SST product uses both the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer infrared satellite, which has good coverage in cloud-free regions near land, and the AMSR-E satellite, which can see through the year-round clouds in the Southern Ocean. This high-resolution SST product was shown to agree with observations

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Sohey Nihashi, Kay I. Ohshima, and Noriaki Kimura

) dataset ( Röske 2006 ), which was created as the forcing data for ocean general circulation models (OGCMs). In this dataset, ice concentrations were derived from the Scanning Multichannel Microwave Radiometer (SMMR) on the Nimbus-7 satellite and from the SSM/I on satellites of the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP). In the sea ice zone, the OMIP heat flux is larger than that calculated by neglecting the ice concentration. Daily ice concentration has also been used in an air

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