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Hyo-Seok Park, Sukyoung Lee, Seok-Woo Son, Steven B. Feldstein, and Yu Kosaka

Fund A-1201 and by the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research 25287120. REFERENCES Bekryaev , R. V. , I. V. Polyakov , and V. A. Alexeev , 2010 : Role of polar amplification in long-term surface air temperature variations and modern Arctic warming . J. Climate , 23 , 3888 – 3906 , doi: 10.1175/2010JCLI3297.1 . Chen , Y. , F. Aires , J. A. Francis , and J. R. Miller , 2006 : Observed relationships between Arctic longwave cloud forcing

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Robert A. Tomas, Clara Deser, and Lantao Sun

dynamics are allowed to respond to the imposed thermal perturbation (in our case Arctic sea ice loss), the resulting change in northward ocean OHT mitigates the need for a strong equilibrium tropical atmospheric response (e.g., ITCZ shift). Similar results were obtained by Kay et al. (2015) using a very different type of thermal perturbation—namely, a decrease in cloud liquid water content over the Southern Ocean. It remains to be seen whether thermal forcings at other latitudes elicit similar

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Changhyun Yoo, Sungsu Park, Daehyun Kim, Jin-Ho Yoon, and Hye-Mi Kim

the extratropical extreme warm and cold events during boreal winter are associated with wave responses to tropical MJO forcing. Understanding the MJO and its teleconnection is therefore crucial for an accurate forecast of extratropical weather and climate including for North America, especially for the 2–4-week range. Despite the importance of MJO teleconnection, realistic representation of the MJO has been a longstanding challenge for global climate models ( Slingo et al. 1996 ; Lin et al. 2006

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Bradley P. Goodwin, Ellen Mosley-Thompson, Aaron B. Wilson, Stacy E. Porter, and M. Roxana Sierra-Hernandez

with the strengthening of the circumpolar westerly winds primarily driven by anthropogenic forcing ( Marshall et al. 2006 ). Enhanced advection of warmer maritime air masses over the orographic barrier of the AP and the resulting foehn winds warm the cooler continental climate on the east side ( Orr et al. 2004 ; Marshall et al. 2006 ). Disintegration of ice shelves has progressed southward ( Scambos et al. 2004 ) from the northern tip as predicted by Mercer (1978) to occur in response to the

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