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Samson M. Hagos, Zhe Feng, Casey D. Burleyson, Chun Zhao, Matus N. Martini, and Larry K. Berg

. Longwave radiative forcing associated with moisture and cloud anomalies is also often cited as the main source of moist static energy for the MJO ( Andersen and Kuang 2012 ; Sobel et al. 2014 ). For example, in the Chikira and Sugiyama (2013) cumulus scheme, radiative heating anomalies moisten the lower and middle troposphere through vertical advection. Finally, a convection–surface flux feedback through nonlinear wind-induced surface heat exchange (WISHE) was proposed by Maloney and Sobel (2004

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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, James H. Ruppert Jr., and Masaki Katsumata

static energy in the column faster than the vertical motion and associated circulation can export it. In Fig. 13 , a comparison is shown between the anomalies (based on SOP means, seasonal trends not removed) of column-integrated convective heating L υ P 0 + S 0 ≡ 〈 Q conv 〉 from the budgets and flux data and 〈 Q R 〉 from the CERES product for DYNAMO (top panel), the ratio of cloud radiative forcing 〈 Q R 〉 CF to 〈 Q conv 〉 (middle panel), and a time series of TRMM precipitation for the SOP

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Paul E. Ciesielski, Richard H. Johnson, Wayne H. Schubert, and James H. Ruppert Jr.

(CombRet) product ( Feng et al. 2014 ). Combining the all-sky and clear retrievals gives us an estimate of the cloud radiative forcing (CRF). Satellite-estimated rainfall data were from the TRMM 3B42 V7 product at 0.25°, 3-h resolution ( Huffman et al. 2007 ). Radar rainfall data from the Mirai , Revelle , and Gan-S-Pol at 10-min resolution covering a 320 km × 320 km domain at each site were obtained from the DYNAMO legacy data archive and averaged into 3-hourly bins to facilitate comparison with

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Angela K. Rowe, Robert A. Houze Jr, Stacy Brodzik, and Manuel D. Zuluaga

1. Introduction The Madden–Julian oscillation (MJO) is a mode of a 30–90-day period that divides broadly into a “suppressed period” and an “active period” ( Madden and Julian 1971 , 1972 ). During the MJO suppressed period over the tropical Indian Ocean, clouds are primarily shallow, organized into lines or open cells ( Rowe and Houze 2015 ), with occasional precipitating convection forming during the afternoon. As the suppressed period transitions toward the active MJO period, increasingly

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Zhe Feng, Sally A. McFarlane, Courtney Schumacher, Scott Ellis, Jennifer Comstock, and Nitin Bharadwaj

will not contribute significantly to the cloud radiative forcing or heating rates. The bottom panels in Fig. 5 show the cloud phase classification for each of the six cloud types defined in this study. As expected, precipitation (drizzle/rain, orange/green colors) appears increasingly frequent from shallow and congestus to deep clouds, while midlevel, cirrus, and anvil clouds mostly consist of nonprecipitating cloud particles (liquid/ice). Table 1 shows the percentage of cloud profiles with

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Matthew A. Janiga and Chidong Zhang

to drive the evolution of clouds in a CRM with periodic boundary conditions. The simulation was performed using 3-hourly data from the DYNAMO northern sounding array, since this array captured more convective variability on the MJO time scale ( Johnson and Ciesielski 2013 ). Version 2a of the sounding data, which is based only on observations, was used. The goal of the simulation is not to determine the total value of Q 1 and Q 2 , since these are constrained by the forcing, but the

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and Simon P. de Szoeke

active phase of the MJO develops. Fig . 1. Skew T –log p temperature profile (solid) for the average DYNAMO conditions from the R/V Revelle along with a histogram of (a) observed temperature and (b) observed dewpoint temperature. The dashed line signifies the dewpoint temperature used in the model initial conditions. In this study we employ a cloud-resolving large-eddy simulation (LES) model to examine how convection responds to external forcing from prescribed domain-scale moisture convergence

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Hungjui Yu, Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, and Hung-Chi Kuo

conceptual mesoscale process was proposed involving the nonlinear interaction between clouds, radiation, and surface processes, the so-called “diurnal dancing” of convective systems, to explain the near 2-day periodicity. In their scenario, despite diurnal radiative forcing, boundary layer (BL) recovery extends to a second day, likely due to the expanded stratiform clouds of MCSs, which impacts the timing of the next round of convection. The BL recovery for a future convective event over a given region

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James H. Ruppert Jr. and Richard H. Johnson

–midtroposphere, which would not exist without such a diurnal cycle. That is to say, the daytime invigoration of moist convection related to the diurnal cycle of SST yields more vigorous cumulus convection in a daily-mean sense than if this diurnal cycle did not exist. If this hypothesis were true, then the diurnal cycle of SST, as described herein, may be regarded as a forcing mechanism for convective invigoration and column moistening. The mesoscale organization of clouds and the associated mesoscale circulation

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Douglas C. Stolz, Steven A. Rutledge, Weixin Xu, and Jeffrey R. Pierce

. Rutledge , and J. R. Pierce , 2015 : Simultaneous influences of thermodynamics and aerosols on deep convection and lightning in the tropics . J. Geophys. Res. Atmos. , 120 , 6207 – 6231 , doi: 10.1002/2014JD023033 . 10.1002/2014JD023033 Storer , R. L. , and S. C. van den Heever , 2013 : Microphysical processes evident in aerosol forcing of tropical deep convective clouds . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 430 – 446 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-12-076.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-12-076.1 Storer , R. L. , S. C

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