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Yefim L. Kogan, Zena N. Kogan, and David B. Mechem

Experiments and objective analysis tests in support of the goals of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurement Program. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 125 , 2353 – 2381 . 10.1175/1520-0493(1997)125<2353:OSSEAO>2.0.CO;2 Ramanathan, V. , Cess R. D. , Harrison E. F. , Minnis P. , Barkstorm B. R. , Ahmad E. , and Hartman D. , 1989 : Cloud-radiative forcing and climate: Results from the earth radiation budget experiment. Science , 243 , 57 – 63 . 10.1126/science.243.4887.57 Sauvageot, H. , and Omar J

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

representation of the infrared transmission function of the atmospheric constitutes. Ph.D. dissertation, Tohoku University of Japan, 191 pp . Shi, L. , and Smith E. A. , 1992 : Surface forcing of the infrared cooling profile over the Tibetan Plateau. Part II: Cooling-rate variation over large-scale plateau domain during summer monsoon transition. J. Atmos. Sci. , 49 , 823 – 844 . 10.1175/1520-0469(1992)049<0823:SFOTIC>2.0.CO;2 Slingo, J. M. , 1987 : The development and verification of a cloud

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J. Li, X. Gao, and S. Sorooshian

than 30 km) was insufficient to represent atmosphere–land surface interactions over the western United States, which are induced by the complex terrain (as argued by Roads et al. 1994 ; Leung et al. 2003a , b ; Anderson et al. 2004 ), and 2) many physical schemes in the RCM, in particular, the convective parameterization, cloud radiation, and land surface schemes, possess substantial errors ( Gochis et al. 2003 ; Liang et al. 2004 ). In general, finer grid resolutions and more effective model

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Ana M. B. Nunes and John O. Roads

on account of the continuous interaction between the atmospheric and the land surface models. We examine here a climate analysis of the coupled land surface scheme response to this model-adjusted precipitation, focusing initially on the impact on the surface water budget terms. Because the continuous assimilation of the precipitation produces changes in the surface radiation fluxes by modifying the surface albedo and cloud distribution, which is directly related to the changes in the moisture

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Richard G. Lawford, John Roads, Dennis P. Lettenmaier, and Phillip Arkin

precipitation, radiation, and clouds. 2. Precipitation: The primary forcing for land surface hydrology a. Precipitation measurement and analysis Precipitation is arguably the most widely measured water cycle variable, but it is still poorly predicted. GEWEX has a strong interest in precipitation products for a number of reasons. Precipitation is needed to force hydrologic models and to initialize weather and climate models. The assimilation of precipitation into weather prediction and climate models can

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Song Yang, S-H. Yoo, R. Yang, K. E. Mitchell, H. van den Dool, and R. W. Higgins

1. Introduction It is widely recognized that, in addition to sea surface temperature (SST), soil moisture provides a strong forcing for governing atmospheric processes on various time scales (see reviews in Betts et al. 1996 ; Dirmeyer et al. 1999 ; Yang and Lau 2006 ; Koster et al. 2006 ). In the midlatitude continents, it may be the most important boundary condition during warm seasons (e.g., Koster and Suarez 1995 ; Lau and Bua 1998 ; Koster et al. 2000 ), especially in relatively dry

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Kevin E. Trenberth, Lesley Smith, Taotao Qian, Aiguo Dai, and John Fasullo

1. Introduction Driven mainly by solar heating, water is evaporated from ocean and land surfaces, transported by winds, and condensed to form clouds and precipitation that falls to land and oceans. Precipitation over land may be stored temporarily as snow or soil moisture, while excess rainfall runs off and forms streams and rivers, which discharge the freshwater into the oceans, thereby completing the global water cycle ( Fig. 1 ). Associated with this water cycle, energy, salt within the

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Jinwon Kim and Hyun-Suk Kang

; Soong and Kim 1996 ; Kim 1997 ; Chung et al. 1998 ; Neiman et al. 2002 ; Kim and Lee 2003 ; Grubišić et al. 2005 ). Extreme elevation changes in the Sierra Nevada further complicate the regional water cycle through their influence on the local snow budget and cloud formation ( Kim 2001 ; Kim et al. 2006 ). Among these orographic effects, the low-level wind disturbances induced by these mountain ranges play the most fundamental role in determining the precipitation distribution in California

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