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Zhe Feng, Fengfei Song, Koichi Sakaguchi, and L. Ruby Leung

regions east of the Continental Divide (ECONUS; Feng et al. 2019 ; Haberlie and Ashley 2019 ). MCSs consist of an assembly of cumulonimbus clouds on scales of 100 km or greater and produce mesoscale circulations ( Houze 2004 , 2018 ). They are also responsible for over half of the extreme daily rainfall events, trailed by synoptic and tropical systems in the ECONUS ( Stevenson and Schumacher 2014 ). The warming climate in the past three decades has already resulted in an observed increase in the

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Suzana J. Camargo, Claudia F. Giulivi, Adam H. Sobel, Allison A. Wing, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Jeffrey D. O. Strong, Anthony D. Del Genio, Maxwell Kelley, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Enrico Scoccimarro, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

, 2019 : Evaluating models’ response of tropical low clouds to SST forcings using CALIPSO observations . Atmos. Chem. Phys. , 19 , 2813 – 2832 , https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-19-2813-2019 . 10.5194/acp-19-2813-2019 Chand , S. S. , K. J. Tory , H. Ye , and K. J. E. Walsh , 2017 : Projected increase in El Niño-driven tropical cyclone frequency in the Pacific . Nat. Climate Change , 7 , 123 – 127 , https://doi.org/10.1038/nclimate3181 . 10.1038/nclimate3181 Cherchi , A. , and

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Maik Renner, Axel Kleidon, Martyn Clark, Bart Nijssen, Marvin Heidkamp, Martin Best, and Gab Abramowitz

.11.004 Taylor , P. C. , 2012 : Tropical outgoing longwave radiation and longwave cloud forcing diurnal cycles from CERES . J. Atmos. Sci. , 69 , 3652 – 3669 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-12-088.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-12-088.1 Todorov , V. , and P. Filzmoser , 2009 : An object-oriented framework for robust Multivariate analysis . J. Stat. Software , 32 , 1 – 47 , https://doi.org/10.18637/JSS.V032.I03 . 10.18637/jss.v032.i03 Twine , T. E. , and Coauthors , 2000 : Correcting eddy

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Catherine M. Naud, James F. Booth, Jeyavinoth Jeyaratnam, Leo J. Donner, Charles J. Seman, Ming Zhao, Huan Guo, and Yi Ming

behind this persistent problem was attributed to the ubiquitous presence of supercooled water in Southern Hemisphere (SH) clouds ( Morrison et al. 2011 ) which models have problems maintaining ( Kay et al. 2016 ). By forcing their model to maintain liquid in clouds for temperatures below freezing, Kay et al. (2016) could correct the surface absorption issue. However, while an advanced treatment of boundary layer clouds in another model improved Southern Hemisphere cloud liquid amounts, its cloud

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Eric D. Maloney, Andrew Gettelman, Yi Ming, J. David Neelin, Daniel Barrie, Annarita Mariotti, C.-C. Chen, Danielle R. B. Coleman, Yi-Hung Kuo, Bohar Singh, H. Annamalai, Alexis Berg, James F. Booth, Suzana J. Camargo, Aiguo Dai, Alex Gonzalez, Jan Hafner, Xianan Jiang, Xianwen Jing, Daehyun Kim, Arun Kumar, Yumin Moon, Catherine M. Naud, Adam H. Sobel, Kentaroh Suzuki, Fuchang Wang, Junhong Wang, Allison A. Wing, Xiaobiao Xu, and Ming Zhao

that may be written in diverse coding languages. PODs developed or under development for the first task include cloud microphysical processes; tropical and extratropical cyclones; ENSO teleconnections and atmospheric dynamics; land–atmosphere interactions; MJO moisture, convection, and radiative processes; precipitation diurnal cycle; AMOC; Arctic sea ice; lake-effect processes; North American monsoon; radiative forcing and cloud–circulation feedbacks; and temperature and precipitation extremes

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Allison A. Wing, Suzana J. Camargo, Adam H. Sobel, Daehyun Kim, Yumin Moon, Hiroyuki Murakami, Kevin A. Reed, Gabriel A. Vecchi, Michael F. Wehner, Colin Zarzycki, and Ming Zhao

, https://doi.org/10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0864:ANPFSC>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0493(2004)132<0864:ANPFSC>2.0.CO;2 Bu , Y. , R. Fovell , and K. Corbosiero , 2014 : Influence of cloud-radiative forcing on tropical cyclone structure . J. Atmos. Sci. , 71 , 1644 – 1662 , https://doi.org/10.1175/JAS-D-13-0265.1 . 10.1175/JAS-D-13-0265.1 Bu , Y. , R. Fovell , and K. Corbosiero , 2017 : The influences of boundary layer mixing and cloud-radiative forcing on tropical cyclone size . J

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Fiaz Ahmed and J. David Neelin

. These statistics are collectively termed the convective transition statistics. The rapid increase in conditional precipitation is hereafter termed the precipitation onset. The onset is also observed in other related variables such as cloud-top heights ( Del Genio et al. 2012 ). The observed precipitation onset can also be envisioned as the statistical representation of the precipitation increases associated with an ensemble of individual convective systems ( Masunaga 2012 ), with organized

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Alexis Berg and Justin Sheffield

impacts can extend to the boundary layer vertical structure and thermodynamics and lead to feedbacks on cloud cover and precipitation. Numerous studies have demonstrated such impacts, in both models and observations [see Seneviratne et al. (2010) for an extensive review]. A key aspect underlying these processes is the high spatial and temporal variability in soil moisture, which leads to complex feedbacks with the atmosphere (e.g., Guillod et al. 2015 ). Given the complexity of the physical

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James F. Booth, Young-Oh Kwon, Stanley Ko, R. Justin Small, and Rym Msadek

1. Introduction Atmospheric storm tracks are very important for climate dynamics. They indicate regions of maximum transient poleward energy transport and zonal momentum transport ( Chang et al. 2002 ) and play an important role in setting the dynamical response of the midlatitudes to global warming through their radiative forcing ( Voigt and Shaw 2015 ). Storm tracks are generally calculated as the standard deviation of atmospheric data that has been filtered in the time domain to isolate

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Jiabao Wang, Hyemi Kim, Daehyun Kim, Stephanie A. Henderson, Cristiana Stan, and Eric D. Maloney

Interpolation V2 dataset ( Reynolds et al. 2002 ) were used as the boundary conditions. All models were integrated for 20 years and archived from 1991 to 2010, with the exception of SPCAM3, which is only archived from 1986 to 2003 for a total of 18 years. The ECMWF AMIP historical run was run with the Integrated Forecast System (IFS; cycle 36r4) atmospheric circulation model. The forcing and boundary conditions are set according to the CMIP5 historical forcing with SST and SIC derived from the Hadley Centre

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