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  • Air–Sea Interactions from the Diurnal to the Intraseasonal during the PISTON, MISOBOB, and CAMP2Ex Observational Campaigns in the Tropics x
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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

case, the sun’s heat is spread throughout the mixed layer and warms each parcel of water by O (0.1°C) by midafternoon. In the latter case, warming is concentrated in the top 2 m and, consequently, more of this heat is likely to be transferred from the ocean back to the atmosphere over a short time scale. In between these extremes heat transport is more complicated. Warming of the lower half of the mixed layer, for example, lags the surface solar forcing by several hours because it depends on the

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Jai Sukhatme, Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Jennifer MacKinnon, S. Shivaprasad, and Debasis Sengupta

rotational component. Moreover, from 80 to 10 km, the observed anomalous scaling of velocity increments observed in the ocean data presented here is consistent with three-dimensional stratified turbulence in other geophysical fluids ( Lohse and Xia 2010 ). Specifically, in situ measurements of stratified turbulence, for example, through marine clouds ( Siebert et al. 2010 ) and the atmospheric surface layer ( Chu et al. 1996 ) also show anomalous scaling and non-Gaussian distributions of velocity

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Adam V. Rydbeck, Tommy G. Jensen, and Matthew R. Igel

cumulus clouds. Li and Carbone (2012) suggested that this mechanism is likely most effective when the atmosphere is susceptible to weak forcing and no large-scale subsidence in the overlying free troposphere is occurring. At much larger scales, Lindzen and Nigam (1987) used a simple model to recreate many of the climatological features of the Pacific intertropical convergence zone and concluded that the distribution of SST significantly contributed to the magnitude and location of low

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Emily M. Riley Dellaripa, Eric D. Maloney, Benjamin A. Toms, Stephen M. Saleeby, and Susan C. van den Heever

amplitude and propagation over the MC (e.g., Fig. 4 in Jiang et al. 2015 ). For example, observations show a local minimum in cloud cover over the MC as the MJO propagates eastward (e.g., Knutson and Weickmann 1987 ; Maloney and Hartmann 1998 ; Hsu and Lee 2005 ; Riley et al. 2011 ) indicating a weakening of the MJO over the MC before reintensifying in the western Pacific. This MJO weakening or disruption of its propagation may result from the interaction of convection with high MC topography (e

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Corinne B. Trott, Bulusu Subrahmanyam, Heather L. Roman-Stork, V. S. N. Murty, and C. Gnanaseelan

-scale movement of strong cloud convection and precipitation, which directly alters the surface circulation of the BoB, as studied by Grunseich et al. (2011) using altimeter observations. MJOs force equatorial Kelvin waves that propagate northward along the eastern coastline ( Cheng et al. 2013 ). These Kelvin waves can alter the mixed layer variability and directly change the rate of air–sea heat flux in the BoB ( Oliver and Thompson 2010 ). The relationships between the MJO and surface fluxes over the BoB

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Wei-Ting Chen, Chien-Ming Wu, and Hsi-Yen Ma

, etc.) in the atmosphere, and facilitating model parameterization improvements. Initialized with the reanalysis (observation) data, the synoptic-scale circulation and atmospheric states remain close to the reanalysis (observations) in the first few days of the hindcasts, while the biases in precipitation and clouds are possibly the results of parameterization deficiencies ( Ma et al. 2013 , 2014 , 2015 ; Xie et al. 2012 ) or a strong local interaction between the parameterized physics and

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Dipanjan Chaudhuri, Debasis Sengupta, Eric D’Asaro, R. Venkatesan, and M. Ravichandran

km to the right of the track) and BD10 (near the track) employ temperature and salinity initial conditions constructed from the mooring data interpolated in the vertical. Model vertical resolution is 0.25 m, and the time step is 1 h. Surface forcing is based on observed hourly incoming shortwave and longwave radiation, and turbulent fluxes are estimated from hourly moored measurements of air temperature, surface pressure, sea surface temperature, relative humidity, and wind using the COARE 3

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Kenneth G. Hughes, James N. Moum, and Emily L. Shroyer

surface water was typically advected 3 km farther per day than water at 30 m. The shear that occurs between the diurnal jet and the mixed layer (0.03 s −1 ; Sutherland et al. 2016 ; Bogdanoff 2017 ) is comparable to that found in estuarine flows (0.05 s −1 ; Stacey and Pond 1997 ), at the base of internal solitary waves (0.05 s −1 ; Moum et al. 2003 ), and in the sheared layer above the equatorial undercurrent (0.02 s −1 ; Smyth et al. 2013 ). Under weak forcing (wind < 2 m s −1 ), clear sky, and

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Michael B. Natoli and Eric D. Maloney

source of convective heating for the global atmospheric circulation ( Ramage 1968 ; Yamanaka et al. 2018 ). However, a high-resolution cloud-resolving model is often required to accurately capture the detailed features of the precipitation distribution ( Sato et al. 2009 ; Birch et al. 2015 ), and errors in global climate models in this region cascade into substantial simulation errors from pole to pole ( Neale and Slingo 2003 ; Inness and Slingo 2006 ). A greater understanding of the diurnal

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