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Simone Lolli, James R. Campbell, Jasper R. Lewis, Yu Gu, Jared W. Marquis, Boon Ning Chew, Soo-Chin Liew, Santo V. Salinas, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Motivation Campbell et al. (2016) isolate top-of-atmosphere (TOA) net cirrus cloud radiative forcing (CRF) properties for a continuous 1-yr, single-layer cloud dataset developed from NASA ground-based Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET; http://mplnet.gsfc.nasa.gov/ ) ( Welton et al. 2001 ; Campbell et al. 2002 ; Lolli et al. 2013 ) observations collected at Greenbelt, Maryland [38.99°N, 76.84°W; 50 m above mean sea level (MSL)]. They estimate that cirrus clouds exert an absolute net

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James R. Campbell, Erica K. Dolinar, Simone Lolli, Gilberto J. Fochesatto, Yu Gu, Jasper R. Lewis, Jared W. Marquis, Theodore M. McHardy, David R. Ryglicki, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Introduction Campbell et al. (2016 , hereinafter C16 ) and Lolli et al. (2017 , hereinafter L17 ) describe multiyear ground-based NASA Micro-Pulse Lidar Network (MPLNET, 532 nm; Welton et al. 2001 ; Campbell et al. 2002 ) measurements of cirrus clouds and corresponding estimates of their net daytime top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) cloud radiative forcing (CRF; i.e., the difference in TOA solar and infrared radiation budgets estimated in the presence of cloud versus that of the corresponding

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James R. Campbell, Simone Lolli, Jasper R. Lewis, Yu Gu, and Ellsworth J. Welton

1. Background Cirrus clouds have long been recognized for their unique contribution to climate ( Liou 1986 ). In particular, whereas all clouds warm the underlying atmosphere and surface at night [positive top-of-the-atmosphere (TOA) forcing], cirrus is the only genus that can readily warm or cool (negative TOA forcing; effectively all other clouds cool the daytime atmosphere) the daytime atmosphere and surface depending on the cirrus’s varying physical characteristics [i.e., cloud height

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Woogyung Kim, Jhoon Kim, Sang Seo Park, and Hi-Ku Cho

in the UV forcing factors and trends in the UV irradiance caused by these forcing factors are also evaluated with the time series of fractional deviation of daily UV irradiance from the reference values obtained by a superposition of sinusoids fitted to the daily data in this study. Changes in the amount of UV radiation reaching the earth’s surface depend mainly on changes in the UV forcing factors of ozone, atmospheric turbidity (aerosols), and clouds, except for geometric factors such as

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Dominique Bouniol, Fleur Couvreux, Pierre-Honoré Kamsu-Tamo, Madeleine Leplay, Françoise Guichard, Florence Favot, and Ewan J. O’Connor

, the surface temperature and the rate of evapotranspiration, with important consequences on atmosphere–surface interactions and the global hydrological cycle. Cloud radiative forcing at the surface is defined as the difference between surface downward flux and clear-sky surface downward flux ( Ramanathan et al. 1989 ). In this section the radiative forcing of the various cloud categories on shortwave and longwave fluxes at the surface is investigated. a. Cloud radiative impact in the shortwave The

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Axel J. Schweiger and Jeffrey R. Key

948 JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGY VOLUME33Arctic Ocean Radiative Fluxes and Cloud Forcing Estimated from the ISCCP C2 Cloud Dataset, 1983-1990 AXEL J. $CHWEIGERPolar Science Center, Applied Physics Laboratory, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington JEFFREY R. K~YCooperative Institute for Research in Environmental Sciences, Division of Cryospheric

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Joseph Sedlar, Laura D. Riihimaki, Kathleen Lantz, and David D. Turner

temporal coverage, permitting study of the dominant cloud structures and how these have evolved in a changing climate. Clustering of global cloud regimes could also be analyzed jointly with the background weather state, indicating a linkage between synoptic weather forcing and cloud type ( Tselioudis et al. 2013 ; McDonald and Parsons 2018 ). However, 2D radiative–cloud-top distributions are created by combining satellite footprints, causing a coarser spatial resolution than the actual pixel

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Xiaodong Hong, Martin J. Leach, and Sethu Raman

2008JOURNAL OF APPLIED METEOROLOGYVOLUME 34A Sensitivity Study of Convective Cloud Formation by Vegetation Forcing with Different Atmospheric Conditions XIAODONG HONG, MARTIN J. LEACH, AND SETHU RAMANDepartment of Marine, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, North Carolina State University, Raleigh, North Carolina(Manuscript received 5 April 1994, in final form 6 March 1995) ABSTRACT Variable vegetation cover is a possible triger for convection, especially

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Michael J. Pavolonis and Jeffrey R. Key

from the surface in the polar regions. Regardless, satellite-derived datasets are very useful for studying spatial and temporal trends in a given parameter such as cloud radiative effect (commonly referred to as cloud forcing). It is also important to understand the sensitivities of cloud forcing at the surface to changes in various surface and cloud parameters. Parameters such as surface reflectance, surface temperature, cloud fraction, cloud-top height, cloud optical depth, cloud

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Tatiana A. Tarasova and Iracema F. A. Cavalcanti

SRB surface solar radiative fluxes and shortwave cloud radiative forcing over South America. The similar space resolution of the satellite-derived and model-simulated surface fluxes allows detailed comparisons. The scarcity of ground-based pyranometer measurements over South America is another reason to use the SRB datasets. Despite the errors related to approximate methods of surface flux derivation from satellite data, strong correlation between the upward flux at the top of the earth

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