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Craig R. Ferguson, Eric F. Wood, and Raghuveer K. Vinukollu

coupling is complexly dependent on four components: 1) the quality and coverage (both spatial and temporal) of the assimilated observations; 2) the assimilation system itself, including the forward radiative transfer model for direct assimilation of raw satellite radiances (if applicable); 3) the background-assimilating AGCM; and 4) the coupled land surface model. Modeled precipitation (i.e., bias and diurnal cycle error) and related radiation/cloud forcing deficiencies serve as limiting factors in the

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Joseph A. Santanello Jr., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, and Sujay V. Kumar

best-available atmospheric forcing to an offline LSM is much larger in the wet regime. In particular, it is the differences in simulated versus observed cloud cover and the impact on incoming radiation at the surface that are the major factors. Along these lines, additional NU-WRF simulations of the 2007 case (not shown) using the Noah LSM showed considerable insensitivity of the surface energy balance components to the soil type (texture) map used for the ARM-SGP domain or to the Noah “Czil

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Agustín Robles-Morua, Enrique R. Vivoni, and Alex S. Mayer

models are tools for generating streamflow predictions that explicitly represent landscape properties and meteorological forcing and their associated spatiotemporal changes ( Smith et al. 2004 ; Wood et al. 2011 ). Because of the sparse nature of meteorological data in the NAM region, we explored the use of the North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS; Mitchell et al. 2004 ) as forcing for the spatially distributed model. NLDAS fields were compared, and in some cases adjusted, with

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Keith J. Harding and Peter K. Snyder

2001 ; Segal et al. 1998 ) because CAPE is more dependent on changes in low-level moisture than temperature ( Crook 1996 ). However, surface cooling and enhanced cloud cover from irrigation also increase CIN, which is more sensitive to changes in temperature than moisture ( Crook 1996 ), inhibiting the development of deep convection ( Barnston and Schickedanz 1984 ; Boucher et al. 2004 ; De Ridder and Gallée 1998 ; DeAngelis et al. 2010 ; Sacks et al. 2009 ). Findell and Eltahir (2003b

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