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M. Baldi, G. A. Dalu, and R. A. Pielke Sr.

positive over the warm nonvegetated patches and negative over the cool vegetated patches. In the presence of ambient flow ( U ≠ 0), w Q is in phase with the diabatic forcing only in the surface layer [Eq. (37) ], while above the surface layer the updraft shifts toward the vegetated patches as the altitude increases [Eq. (38) ]. At the top of the PBL w Q becomes positive over the vegetated patches when Therefore, the presence of moderate winds are beneficial to cloud formation since they enhance

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Young-Kwon Lim, Ming Cai, Eugenia Kalnay, and Liming Zhou

separating the surface temperature change signals due to global and regional forcings in the observed data. The basis of this study is the fact that the surface temperature change response to land vegetation types is not present in the National Centers for Environmental Prediction–National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCEP–NCAR) reanalysis (NNR) surface data, and is only partially present in the 40-yr European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) reanalysis (ERA-40), while the station

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Vinodkumar, A. Chandrasekar, K. Alapaty, and Dev Niyogi

the analysis fields. Much scientific literature on the uses of four-dimensional data assimilation (FDDA) already exists ( Anthes 1974 ; Stauffer and Seaman 1990 , 1994 ; Stauffer et al. 1991 ). The present study utilizes the continuous (every model time step) dynamical FDDA, using the analysis nudging approach, where forcing functions are added to the model’s governing equations in order to “nudge” the model state toward the observations. In recent years, several studies have attempted to

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