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Adam P. Showman

? To answer this question, we must estimate the likely values of the forcing and damping parameters. Several authors have suggested, in analogy with Earth’s Tropics, that Jovian thunderstorms can transport most of the heat flux through the cloud layer ( Banfield et al. 1998 ; Gierasch et al. 2000 ). If so, then the globally averaged thunderstorm mass flux is Ṁ ∼ F /( c p Δ θ ), where F is the heat flux, c p is specific heat, and Δ θ is the static stability across the layer (or equivalently

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Peter L. Read, Yasuhiro H. Yamazaki, Stephen R. Lewis, Paul D. Williams, Robin Wordsworth, Kuniko Miki-Yamazaki, Joël Sommeria, and Henri Didelle

1. Introduction The banded organization of clouds and zonal winds in the atmospheres of the outer planets has long fascinated atmosphere and ocean dynamicists and planetologists, especially with regard to the stability and persistence of these patterns. This banded organization, mainly apparent in clouds thought to be of ammonia and NH 4 SH ice, is one of the most striking features of the atmosphere of Jupiter. The cloud bands are associated with multiple zonal jets of alternating sign with

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John Marshall, David Ferreira, J-M. Campin, and Daniel Enderton

parameterizes eddies as an advective and stirring process, using the scheme of Gent and McWilliams (1990) with a transfer coefficient of 800 m 2 s −1 . Convective adjustment, implemented as an enhanced vertical mixing of temperature ( T ) and salt ( S ), is used to represent ocean convection. A thermodynamic ice model following Winton (2000) is also incorporated into the model. Orbital forcing and CO 2 levels are prescribed at present-day values. The seasonal cycle is represented: there is no diurnal

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I. G. Watterson

Model (MOM) code. It has two grid boxes for each atmospheric grid square (from halved latitude spacing), and 31 levels, with the upper three layer thicknesses being 10, 12, and 14 m. A now-standard set of physical processes are modeled, including the land surface, dynamical sea ice, cloud formation, precipitation, convection, and radiation. The radiation in the model is perturbed through variations in the specified ozone distribution and greenhouse gas (GHG) concentration. Some effects of

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Thomas Jung and Peter B. Rhines

tendency (westerly force on the atmosphere; Brown 2004 ). This arises not from Greenland but from the Aleutian low and its interaction with the upslope of the Coast Range of Alaska. The global angular momentum of the atmosphere responds primarily to pressure torque from the Rocky Mountains, Andes, and Tibetan Plateau. Pressure-drag variability on these topographies is associated with distinct atmospheric response patterns (e.g., Lott et al. 2004a , b ). This paper explores Greenland’s effect on the

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Yohai Kaspi and Glenn R. Flierl

forcing and large-scale friction Huang et al. (2001) and Galperin et al. (2001) suggest a scaling law to the energy spectra of the jets and show ( Galperin et al. 2001 , 2006 ) that it matches the spectrum of the observed jets on Jupiter. Smith (2004) shows multiple jets emerging from stochastically forced quasigeostrophic (QG) turbulence in an equivalent barotropic system. As applied to a gas giant’s atmosphere, these shallow water or quasigeostrophic models have several flaws exemplified by

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