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David Adamec and Russell L. Elsberry

in predicting mixed layer depth and temperature. Dew point temperature isan important variable for mixed layer predictions during the winter. During summer, cloud cover becomesan important variable. The results of this study are compared with errors in mixed layer depth and temperaturepredictions that are due to errors in the initial profile. The errors in the predictions which are due to errorsin the atmospheric forcing are comparable in magnitude to those errors which are due to imperfect

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Russell L. Elsberry, Scott A. Sandgathe, and Frank J. Winninghoff

midlatitude ocean response appears realistic, the ocean model is very sensitive to large horizontal variationsin solar flux that are predicted between tropical cloud cluster and adjacent cloud-free areas. Such high seasurface temperature gradients might be expected to lead to very vigorous deep convection in a coupled atmosphericmodel. Both the atmospheric forcing provided to the ocean model and the sea-surface temperature provided.the atmospheric model in a fully coupled system may have to be averaged in

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Roman Stocker and Jörg Imberger

( Antenucci and Imberger 2001 ), and the Wedderburn number W, which accounts for the severity of the forcing or initial disturbance with respect to the stratification ( Spigel and Imberger 1980 ). The Burger number is defined here as S = c / fr 0 , where c is the nonrotational baroclinic phase speed, f the inertial frequency and r 0 the horizontal dimension of the basin. Sometimes, the square of this expression is used ( Pedlosky 1979 ). Antenucci and Imberger (2001) compute ratios of

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James D. Scott and Michael A. Alexander

cloud radiative forcing in AGCMs with satellite estimates and found rms differences to be larger for shortwave cloud forcing (SWCF) compared to longwave cloud forcing (LWCF) in 14 out of 18 AGCMs. Garret et al. (1998) , report that recent improvements to AGCMs have reduced biases seen in earlier versions of the same models, but systematic overestimation of the downwelling shortwave flux persists and contributes to positive biases in the net surface radiation. Global reanalyses such as the National

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Robert A. Weller, Sudip Majumder, and Amit Tandon

-frequency covariability of the atmosphere and ocean is a necessary part of understanding the dynamics that govern the seasonal and longer-term evolution of SST. To an extent, we also seek to document the diurnal restratification events in the region because we had not anticipated finding such events under the marine stratus clouds in the presence of steady trade wind forcing and thus had not considered the possibility of diurnal restratification having a role in setting SST in this region. However, we do find

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G. T. Csanady

equations for water temZperature 0, potential air temperature 0a, and wet bulbtemperature Od. The forcing terms are the radiant heating temperature Or, potential temperature 0, and wetbulb temperature Od, above cloud base, as well as watertemperature Oh below the mixed layer. With the coefficients supposed independent of 0, 0a and Od the equations are linear. However, at least the mass transferconstant/5 is a function of buoyancy flux, i.e., of theair-sea temperature difference 0a - 0 and of the

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Kristopher B. Karnauskas, Raghu Murtugudde, and Antonio J. Busalacchi

–sea interaction processes that effectively drive the CT westward along the equator ( Mitchell and Wallace 1992 ; Nigam 1997 ). It would be difficult to overemphasize the importance of the CT in global hydrological and biogeochemical cycles, because it plays a key role in the formation of tropical cloud and precipitation patterns, the supply of nutrients for surface ocean biological productivity, and carbon cycling. The east-central tropical Pacific is the largest oceanic source of CO 2 to the atmosphere (e

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Gerd Krahmann, Martin Visbeck, and Gilles Reverdin

1. Introduction Recent analyses of historical sea surface temperature (SST) data have revealed that coherent large-scale temperature anomalies occur in the North Atlantic Ocean on interannual to decadal timescales ( Deser and Blackmon 1993 ; Kushnir 1994 ; Hansen and Bezdek 1996 ; Sutton and Allen 1997 ). A significant part of these anomalies are related to large-scale atmospheric forcing by the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) ( Walker 1924 ; Walker and Bliss 1924 ), a seesaw of atmospheric

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Andrew E. Kiss and Leela M. Frankcombe

principle) entirely to an intrinsic instability in the current or to variability in the forcing. Process studies of WBC variability have mostly investigated the nonlinear dynamics of gyres under steady wind forcing, or the linear dynamics of gyres under variable winds, with relatively few including both nonlinearity and variable forcing. We therefore provide here a comprehensive study of the response of an idealized nonlinear subtropical gyre to periodic wind forcing. This provides insight into the

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Bo Qiu, Shuiming Chen, and Peter Hacker

. 1a ). Coupled with the intense surface wind forcing, this large heat loss contributes to the regional formation of the subtropical and central mode waters [see Hanawa and Talley (2001) for a comprehensive review]. Through lateral induction of the thermocline water across the spatially sloping mixed layer, the excessive heat loss region of the western North Pacific is also where subsurface temperature anomalies can be preferentially entrained to the surface mixed layer ( Qiu and Huang 1995

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