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Wes P. Kent and Scott C. Sheridan

1. Introduction Weather is a force of nature that can impact many facets of our everyday lives. For some humans, the weather can have a direct impact on their profession. From construction workers ( Moselhi et al. 1997 ) to emergency responders battling wildfires ( Sun et al. 2009 ), different meteorological occurrences can elicit different responses. Another profession that can be greatly influenced by the weather is a Major League Baseball player. Although both baseball and climate have been

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

. Its blast overturns anything that lies in its path, and its circular motion whirls away and carries off by force anything it meets ( Aristotle 1952 , Meteorologica , 371a9–15). This description is, to a certain extent, similar to the modern definition of a tornado, which the American Meteorological Society (2019a ) defines as a rotating column of air, in contact with the surface, pendant from a cumuliform cloud (“spiral sinks to the Earth”) and often visible as a funnel cloud (“carries with it

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J. Sander, J. F. Eichner, E. Faust, and M. Steuer

Fig. 2 , the short-term variability and also the mean level of loss are observably enhanced in the latter half of the period as compared to the earlier half (see Fig. 2 and the supplemental material ). The new concept presented here is to compare this pattern of change to the time series of severe thunderstorm forcing as inferred from reanalysis data. This way, we address the question whether changes in the hazard can be deemed responsible for changes in normalized losses. An analogous approach

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Rachel Hauser

restrain global warming concurrently with global mitigation and adaptation efforts ( Blackstock et al. 2009 ; Caldeira and Keith 2010 ; Keith et al. 2010 ; Task Force on Climate Remediation Research 2011 ). Similar to geoengineering, cloud seeding techniques were explored beginning in the 1940s as a means for humans to moderate extreme weather, with the intent being, as appropriate to the situation, to augment or suppress rain or snow, hail, fog, lightning, or severe storms so as to reduce loss of

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Johnathan P. Kirk and Gordon A. Cromley

the conflict, the French continually tried to force the Viet Minh forces into a massive battle similar to those in World War II. When it happened at Dien Bien Phu in 1954, despite the French’s technological advantages, the Viet Minh forces were able to defeat the French in a pitched battle and force France to negotiate a settlement to the conflict. As in other armed conflicts (e.g., Winters et al. 1998 ; Keller 2009 ), weather and climate played an important role in the operational tempo of the

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Auwal F. Abdussalam, Andrew J. Monaghan, Daniel F. Steinhoff, Vanja M. Dukic, Mary H. Hayden, Thomas M. Hopson, John E. Thornes, and Gregor C. Leckebusch

–35 and 2060–75, by forcing it with an ensemble of downscaled future climate simulations. Projected outcomes are expressed as the rate of cases per 100 000 persons within the hospitals’ catchment population. The catchment population of each hospital was estimated by taking the ratio of its cases versus the total cases in the district for the period 2007–11, during which district-level data were available, and then multiplying the ratio by the entire district population, which gave us an estimated

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Kendal McGuffie and Ann Henderson-Sellers

). Synoptic weather observations lacked a single agreed nomenclature for many basic features: Luke Howard (1803) proposed the accepted cloud classification just two years before Francis Beaufort’s (1805) official codification of wind speeds, although the British Royal Navy had employed this wind force vocabulary informally for some years (e.g., Wheeler and Wilkinson 2004 ). Finally, the means of collecting temporally coincident observations had, of course, to await the telegraph (mid-1850s). d. Who

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Lesley Duxbury

metaphorically to represent how we feel or how we perceive others: “a black cloud hung over him,” “he sounds as much fun as a wet weekend,” or “she has a sunny disposition” graphically convey mood and states of mind. The weather is integral to our sense of being-in-the-world, but climate change may cause us to perceive our surroundings differently and shift thinking about our place in the world. Given that most of our understanding of climate change is based on information broadcast through the mass media

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Catherine Morin Boulais

; they expressed that buying a storm-chasing tour to observe storms they cannot see at home was one of the best opportunities to realize their passion. 2) A spectacular sight All participants put forward the impressive beauty of the storms they witnessed during a storm-chasing tour. Tourists talked about the “unbelievable cloud formations” they observed and how it was “incredible to see” tornadoes forming and touching the ground. Owners and guides converged in saying they were “pursuing severe

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Markus Enenkel, Daniel Osgood, Martha Anderson, Bristol Powell, Jessica McCarty, Christopher Neigh, Mark Carroll, Margaret Wooten, Greg Husak, Christopher Hain, and Molly Brown

regression models ( Balaghi et al. 2008 ) and machine learning models (e.g., Panda et al. 2010 ) have been developed to use vegetation indices with and without atmospheric forcing to predict near-future yields. Different satellite datasets have strengths and limitations based on physical retrieval mechanisms, sensor technology, or algorithmic development. To understand the strengths and weaknesses of each of the data sources across different landscapes and climate types we are interested in how closely

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