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E. P. Nowottnick, P. R. Colarco, S. A. Braun, D. O. Barahona, A. da Silva, D. L. Hlavka, M. J. McGill, and J. R. Spackman

) in the SACM simulation ( Fig. 11c ) than in the SA simulation ( Fig. 11b ). Modifications to ice cloud effective radius are known to impact the radiative budget of the atmosphere ( Quaas et al. 2008 ; Rotstayn 1999 ; Jones and Slingo 1996 ), and in Fig. 12 the shortwave aerosol, longwave cloud, and net (shortwave plus longwave) total atmospheric radiative forcings are shown for the SA and SACM simulation at 1300 UTC 13 September 2012. The shortwave forcing is nearly identical in both

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Zhining Tao, Scott A. Braun, Jainn J. Shi, Mian Chin, Dongchul Kim, Toshihisa Matsui, and Christa D. Peters-Lidard

longwave absorption within the stratocumulus cloud deck at the top of the boundary layer that is enhanced by the AM effect (figures now shown). Above the SAL, cooling occurs between 500 and 300 hPa and is particularly pronounced near the upper ITCZ region north of 12°N. The AR effect ( Fig. 10c ) is the major driving force of the change in radiative heating profiles below 400 hPa, while both the AM ( Fig. 10a ) and AR effects are important to the changes in atmospheric heating above 400 hPa. Although

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Scott A. Braun, Paul A. Newman, and Gerald M. Heymsfield

Space Center WB-57f, which was conducting a coincident Office of Naval Research (ONR) Tropical Cyclone Intensity (TCI) mission utilizing a newly developed dropsonde system. The WB-57f is capable of flight durations up to 6 h, a range of approximately 3700 km, and altitudes of approximately 18.3 km (60,000 ft). Three science missions were flown by the WB-57f, which deployed from McDill Air Force Base near Tampa, Florida. HS3 PAYLOADS. The environmental GH carried three instruments, including the

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Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

Rogers et al. 2013b , 2015 ), consist primarily of TCs already undergoing intensification, after the intensifying secondary circulation has had time to develop deep convection, while the satellite studies have a large number of cases prior to the onset of intensification, when low-level forcing mechanisms are likely important in the development of shallow/moderate convection ( Tao and Jiang 2015 ). It may also result from differences in how the timing of the onset of intensification is defined

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Jonathan Zawislak, Haiyan Jiang, George R. Alvey III, Edward J. Zipser, Robert F. Rogers, Jun A. Zhang, and Stephanie N. Stevenson

predominant occurrence of deep convection (proxy is cold cloud and lightning) in the downshear quadrants. Although they do not identify a clear diurnal cycle, Kossin (2002) has previously identified a semidiurnal signal in IR data within 100 km of the center of tropical storms and hurricanes. Dunion et al. (2014) do not identify a similar semidiurnal signal, although their dataset is restricted to major hurricanes and low to moderate shear cases (<7.5 m s −1 ). The upshear quadrants exhibit more

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Anthony C. Didlake Jr., Gerald M. Heymsfield, Paul D. Reasor, and Stephen R. Guimond

centers. Additional data used in this analysis come from flight level observations collected by U.S. Air Force (USAF) C-130 reconnaissance aircraft, which flew in between the flight times of the WB-57 and P3. Vigh et al. (2016) recently developed the FLIGHT+ dataset, which gathers all NOAA and USAF flight-level data dating back to 1997. In this dataset, flight tracks are segmented into radial legs relative to the storm center determined by the method of Willoughby and Chelmow (1982) . The flight

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