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Warren J. Tennant, Glenn J. Shutts, Alberto Arribas, and Simon A. Thompson

deduced using the coarse-graining methodology applied to a cloud-resolving model of Shutts and Palmer (2007) , to give the power in a single mode as χ ( n ) = n −1.27 , the amplitude F 0 is defined as where a is the radius of the earth, Σ 2 is the noise variance, and the sum is over the input wavenumber range [ n 1 ; n 2 ] given by An example of the random streamfunction forcing pattern and its power spectrum is shown in Figs. 1a–1c . This forcing implies a typical global-mean wind speed

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Benoît Vié, Olivier Nuissier, and Véronique Ducrocq

). While large amounts of precipitation can accumulate over several days when frontal systems are slowed down and strengthened by coastal mountains, some of these Mediterranean HPEs can be attributed to back-building quasi-stationary mesoscale convective systems (MCSs) staying over the same area for several hours, producing large rainfall totals in a very short time (typically over 200 mm in 6–24 h). Using nonhydrostatic cloud-resolving models (CRMs) improves the realism of simulated precipitating

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Thomas M. Hamill, Jeffrey S. Whitaker, Michael Fiorino, and Stanley G. Benjamin

in the vertical, forcing increments to 0 at 1.5 scale heights (computed as the natural log of the ratio of the pressure of the model level divided by the pressure assigned to the observation location). The reference pressure for radiance observations was set to the maximum in the weighting function for each instrument and channel. System error (including model error) was parameterized with a combination of multiplicative and additive inflation. Since our version of the EnKF used the GSI

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John E. Janowiak, Peter Bauer, Wanqiu Wang, Phillip A. Arkin, and Jon Gottschalck

use of a comparatively stable space-based observing constellation that provides radiances from infrared and passive microwave instruments together with derived near-surface scatterometer winds, cloud motion winds, and total column ozone retrievals. With respect to ERA-40, numerous fundamental improvements to model, data assimilation, and observing system have been introduced. Apart from model resolution and vertical level upgrades, a 12-h four-dimensional variational assimilation system is

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