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Lisa Milani, Mark S. Kulie, Daniele Casella, Pierre E. Kirstetter, Giulia Panegrossi, Veljko Petkovic, Sarah E. Ringerud, Jean-François Rysman, Paolo Sanò, Nai-Yu Wang, Yalei You, and Gail Skofronick-Jackson

et al. 2018 ; Pettersen et al. 2020 ). Deeper cloud structures that are characteristic of midlatitude winter cyclones are generally easier for PMWs to detect due to strong scattering signals from ice particles and higher reflectivity values that can be detected by radars with reduced sensitivity. Shallow snowfall, however, presents unique PMW detection complexities at higher latitudes since its radiative signal can be difficult to discern over snow-covered surfaces. Depending on radar

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Sarah Ringerud, Christa Peters-Lidard, Joe Munchak, and Yalei You

correlated to regional climate conditions. Subsequent versions of GPROF addressed this by constraining the TRMM (ocean only) GPROF retrievals by two environmental parameters, namely total precipitable water (TPW) and sea surface temperature (SST) ( Kummerow et al. 2011 ). Moving forward to GPM, these same techniques were adapted to land surfaces, by replacing the SST with the 2 m air temperature commonly available from forecast and reanalysis models. In a series of papers describing and testing the Cloud

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Veljko Petković, Marko Orescanin, Pierre Kirstetter, Christian Kummerow, and Ralph Ferraro

information is limited to the lightning-active clouds and era of GLM satellite sensors. Fig . 2. Distributions of total precipitation fraction as a function of DPR-combined (V5) convective fraction. The x axis ranges from zero (fully stratiform) to one (fully convective) in 0.2 increments. Light blue: current operational GPROF (V5) retrieval; gray: DPR-combined (V5); bright blue: GPROF when provided DPR-combined information on convective/stratiform flag. Given the four-decade-long effort in linking PMW

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