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John L. Beven II, Lixion A. Avila, Eric S. Blake, Daniel P. Brown, James L. Franklin, Richard D. Knabb, Richard J. Pasch, Jamie R. Rhome, and Stacy R. Stewart

storm surge of about 2 ft was reported at Key West as Katrina passed to the north on 26 August. Similar surge was reported along portions of the southeastern coast of Florida. Rainfall distributions associated with Katrina across southern Florida were highly asymmetric about the storm track, with the greatest amounts occurring south of the center. Rainfall totals from Miami-Dade County include 414.8 mm at Perrine, 356.6 mm at Homestead Air Force Base, 311.2 mm at Florida City, and 282.7 mm at Cutler

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James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven II, Miles B. Lawrence, Stacy R. Stewart, and Eric S. Blake

by the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (“Hurricane Hunters”) of the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aircraft Operations Center (AOC). During reconnaissance flights, minimum sea level pressures are either measured by dropsondes released at the circulation center or extrapolated hydrostatically from flight level. Surface (or very near surface) winds in the eyewall or maximum wind band are often measured directly using GPS

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, Richard J. Pasch, and Stacy R. Stewart

’s central dense overcast became partially eroded, signifying a weakening trend. On 5–6 October, the cyclone turned northward, then accelerated north-northeastward ahead of a deep-layer trough. Kate weakened below hurricane strength on 7 October while accelerating north-northeastward over cooler waters. Kate also began losing tropical characteristics when cold-air clouds wrapped around the center over the southern semicircle, and the remaining central convection weakened and became disorganized. The

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Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, Jack L. Beven, James L. Franklin, John L. Guiney, and Richard J. Pasch

2 September. During this time, Dennis was affected by the cold front associated with the midlatitude trough. A combination of vertical shear and entrainment of cool dry air into the circulation decreased the convection and caused weakening. Dennis weakened to a tropical storm on 1 September, and on 1 and 2 September may have, in fact, been as much subtropical or extratropical as tropical. Despite the lack of convection, surface observations indicate maximum sustained winds were near 45 kt on 2

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Richard J. Pasch, Miles B. Lawrence, Lixion A. Avila, John L. Beven, James L. Franklin, and Stacy R. Stewart

the border of Honduras and Nicaragua. The cyclone moved erratically for the next 12 h before it began accelerating north-northeastward early on 15 October. Southwesterly vertical shear associated with a deep-layer trough over the southeastern United States prevented further development and may have contributed to a persistent elongation of the circulation. The center made landfall on the south coast of central Cuba on 16 October, and the cyclone was absorbed by a cold front late that day. An Air

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Richard J. Pasch and Lixion A. Avila

1950. Every year, the National Hurricane Center (NHC, a component of the Tropical Prediction Center) produces a tropical cyclone “best track” database that consists of center positions and intensities every 6 h. These best track data are derived from position and intensity estimates using the following data: meteorological satellite imagery, reconnaissance aircraft reports, surface and upper-air observations (particularly surface ship reports), and (when the center of a tropical cyclone comes

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Michael J. Brennan, Richard D. Knabb, Michelle Mainelli, and Todd B. Kimberlain

geostationary and low-earth orbiting satellites, aircraft reconnaissance, weather radar, buoys, and conventional land-based surface and upper-air observations ( Dvorak 1984 ; Hebert and Poteat 1975 ; Hawkins et al. 2001 ; Brueske and Velden 2003 ; Demuth et al. 2006 ; Brennan et al. 2009 ). In 2007, during all NOAA WP-3D aircraft missions and a subset of the U.S. Air Force Reserve C-130 aircraft flights, surface winds were remotely estimated using the Stepped-Frequency Microwave Radiometer (SFMR

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Richard J. Pasch, Lixion A. Avila, and John L. Guiney

North Atlantic oscillates between warm and cold states that last 25–40 yr each. The last cold episode extended from 1971 to 1994. Since 1995, the north Atlantic appears to have switched back to a warm phase and Atlantic hurricanes have also increased to a level of activity similar to that of the late 1920s to late 1960s. It has been known for some time (e.g., Riehl and Shafer 1944 ; Gray 1968 ) that the vertical shear of the horizontal wind is a major controlling factor in TC genesis and intensity

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Mark A. Lander, Eric J. Trehubenko, and Charles P. Guard

1. Introduction This summary of 1996 Eastern Hemisphere tropical cyclones (TCs) was compiled from the archives of the Joint Typhoon Warning Center, Guam (JTWC). The JTWC is a joint U.S. Navy and Air Force activity with a forecast area of responsibility that extends from the 180° meridian westward to the coast of Africa, north and south of the equator. Seventy percent of the world’s TCs develop in this area. The Naval Pacific Meteorology and Oceanography Command at Pearl Harbor

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James L. Franklin and Daniel P. Brown

reconnaissance flights conducted by the 53rd Weather Reconnaissance Squadron (“Hurricane Hunters”) of the Air Force Reserve Command (AFRC), and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) Aircraft Operations Center (AOC). During reconnaissance flights, minimum sea level pressures are either measured by dropsondes released at the circulation center or extrapolated hydrostatically from flight level. Low-level winds in the eyewall or maximum wind band are often measured directly using global

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