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Brandon W. Kerns and Shuyi S. Chen

edge of the dry air surge. Times are in UTC. In addition, during November–December the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) P3 flew 12 science missions and the Centre National d’Etudes Spatiales (CNES) Falcon flew 10 missions. The NOAA P3 was based out of Diego Garcia and the CNES Falcon out of Gan. A total of 468 dropwindsondes were deployed along the P3 flight paths ( Chen et al. 2012 ), which are level-3 quality controlled data from the NCAR EOL ( Young et al. 2012 ). For

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Tomoe Nasuno, Tim Li, and Kazuyoshi Kikuchi

description of how it led to convective initiation (e.g., in terms of moisture buildup) was presented. Moreover, extratropical forcing sometimes emerges as specific weather events, such as an outbreak of cold surges ( Wang et al. 2012 ) or in an enhancement of Rossby wave activity ( Hsu et al. 1990 ). Accumulation of case studies is indispensable when tackling the MJO initiation problem. The Cooperative Indian Ocean Experiment on Intraseasonal Variability in the Year 2011 (CINDY2011)/Dynamics of the

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Sue Chen, Maria Flatau, Tommy G. Jensen, Toshiaki Shinoda, Jerome Schmidt, Paul May, James Cummings, Ming Liu, Paul E. Ciesielski, Christopher W. Fairall, Ren-Chieh Lien, Dariusz B. Baranowski, Nan-Hsun Chi, Simon de Szoeke, and James Edson

, R. A. Allard , R. J. Small , and T. A. Smith , 2011 : Turbulent heat fluxes during an intense cold-air outbreak over the Kuroshio Extension Region: Results from a high-resolution coupled atmosphere–ocean model . Ocean Dyn. , 61 , 657 – 674 , doi: 10.1007/s10236-011-0380-0 . Johnson , R. H. , and P. E. Ciesielski , 2013 : Structure and properties of Madden–Julian oscillations deduced from DYNAMO sounding arrays . J. Atmos. Sci. , 70 , 3157 – 3179 , doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-13

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H. Bellenger, K. Yoneyama, M. Katsumata, T. Nishizawa, K. Yasunaga, and R. Shirooka

convection (see Fig. 11 ). For instance, there is the strong positive vertical moisture advection during 9–10 October associated with deep convection or the dry-air surge around 20 November described by Kerns and Chen (2014) that caused strong negative horizontal moisture advection at the R/V Mirai position. Furthermore, local tropospheric moisture is certainly not the only important factor that can explain the triggering of an MJO. Kerns and Chen (2014) suggested, for instance, that the

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