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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, Siegfried D. Schubert, Max J. Suarez, and Chris D. Thorncroft

tropical Atlantic, cold air outbreaks are observed on a regular basis (e.g., Vizy and Cook 2009 ) in the form of cold surges associated with short-wave trough passages over the Mediterranean Sea. These cold surges enhance convection over northern and western Africa but reduce it over the eastern Sahel. It is possible that the particular topography of northern Africa and the Mediterranean Sea favors some tropical–extratropical interaction with a well-defined time scale and that this interaction is

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Man-Li C. Wu, Oreste Reale, and Siegfried D. Schubert

. , O. Reale , and F. Siccardi , 2004 : Water vapor sources of the October 2000 Piedmont flood . J. Hydrometeor. , 5 , 693 – 712 . Ulbrich , U. , T. Bruecher , A. H. Fink , G. C. Leckesbusch , A. Krueger , and J. G. Pinto , 2003 : The central European floods of August 2002: Part 1—Rainfall periods and flood development . Weather , 58 , 371 – 376 . Vizy , E. K. , and K. H. Cook , 2009 : A mechanism for African monsoon breaks: Mediterranean cold air surges . J

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Franklin R. Robertson and Jason B. Roberts

. P. , G. N. Kiladis , and P. J. Webster , 1999 : The horizontal and vertical structure of east Asian winter monsoon pressure surges . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 125 , 29 – 54 . Emanuel , K. A. , 1987 : An air-sea interaction model of intraseasonal oscillations in the tropics . J. Atmos. Sci. , 44 , 2324 – 2340 . Fairall , C. W. , E. F. Bradley , J. E. Hare , A. A. Grachev , and J. B. Edson , 2003 : Bulk parameterization of air–sea fluxes: Updates and

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