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Richard H. Johnson, Paul E. Ciesielski, Brian D. McNoldy, Peter J. Rogers, and Richard K. Taft

the GoC, which along with cool-air advection implied by the SST gradient there, accounts for minimal seasonal-mean precipitation in this location ( Fig. 4a ). The twice-per-day resolution of the QuikSCAT data permits detection of day-to-day variability in the GoC flow and, in particular, gulf surges. The component of the QuikSCAT surface wind along the axis of the GoC and a 2°–3° coastal strip to its south from June through September is shown in Fig. 8 . Also shown in this figure is a time series

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Timothy J. Lang, David A. Ahijevych, Stephen W. Nesbitt, Richard E. Carbone, Steven A. Rutledge, and Robert Cifelli

propagation is 500–1000 m deep and has 1–2°C negative buoyancy ( Keenan and Carbone 1992 ), so either very shallow or extremely weak cold pools are all that is needed to explain this behavior. More elaborate mechanisms, such the Mapes et al. (2003) gravity wave hypothesis originally used to explain observations of convection moving at 15 m s −1 up to several hundred kilometers offshore of Colombia, are not needed. During the NAME IOP, there were at least two significant gulf surges ( Higgins et al

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Wayne Higgins and David Gochis

-level inverted troughs, cold fronts, cutoff lows, open troughs, and Gulf of California moisture surges that are not well understood despite the fact that they are likely to be important in the prediction of monsoon precipitation. Recent work has suggested that portions of the region encompassed by NAME tiers II and III are “hot spots” for warm season land–atmosphere coupling (e.g., the southern Great Plains) ( Koster et al. 2004 ). Improved diagnostics for evaluating this complex feedback process and its

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Katrina Grantz, Balaji Rajagopalan, Martyn Clark, and Edith Zagona

American monsoon system. J. Climate , 11 , 2238 – 2257 . Berbery , E. H. , 2001 : Mesoscale moisture analysis of the North American monsoon. J. Climate , 14 , 121 – 137 . Brenner , I. S. , 1974 : A surge of maritime tropical air—Gulf of California to the southwestern United States. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 102 , 375 – 389 . Carleton , A. M. , 1986 : Synoptic–dynamic character of “bursts” and “breaks” in the southwest U.S. summer precipitation singularity. J. Climate , 6 , 605 – 623

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Michelle Hallack-Alegria and David W. Watkins Jr.

North American monsoon (NAM), occurring in the summer (July–September). The NAM is the northernmost portion of a more extensive region of heavy precipitation that first develops over southern Mexico during the spring and then spreads northward along the western slopes of the Sierra Madre Occidental ( Douglas et al. 1993 ; Stensrud et al. 1995 ). The monsoon circulation brings warm, humid air from the south, and short-lived thunderstorms result from convection as the air is lifted by orographic

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Chunmei Zhu, Tereza Cavazos, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. Conclusions are presented in section 10 . 2. Data The land domain in this study extends from 14° to 50°N and includes the conterminous United States, parts of Canada, and all of Mexico ( Fig. 2 ). The primary source of land surface data for the continental United Sates and parts of Canada is Maurer et al. (2002) . Monthly P in this dataset is gridded from climatological (daily) observations of precipitation. Surface air temperature is gridded from daily observations, while downward solar and longwave

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