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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

-pressure conditions along the North American west coast, with highest values occurring along the coast of California and over Alaska. The atmospheric river in the western flank of the second downstream ridge ( Fig. 1c ) makes landfall in Alaska and British Columbia, resulting in heavy precipitation ( Fig. 1d ). A cold-air outbreak occurs over continental and eastern North America. Further amplification of this pattern eventually leads to a massive omega block over the west coast of North America and associated

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

. Kiladis , and B. Liebmann , 2002 : Upper-air wave trains over the Pacific Ocean and wintertime cold surges in tropical-subtropical South America leading to freezes in southern and southeastern Brazil . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 73 , 223 – 242 , . 10.1007/s00704-001-0669-x Martínez-Alvarado , O. , E. Madonna , S. Gray , and H. Joos , 2016 : A route to systematic error in forecasts of Rossby waves . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 142 , 196

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