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Joaquim G. Pinto, Florian Pantillon, Patrick Ludwig, Madeleine-Sophie Déroche, Giovanni Leoncini, Christoph C. Raible, Len C. Shaffrey, and David B. Stephenson

WINDSTORMS. The aim of this session was to discuss new progress in understanding European windstorm dynamics. A major discussion topic was the combination of perils associated with windstorms such as extreme precipitation, severe wind gusts and/or storm surges (so-called compound events). The complexity of these events in terms of impacts makes them a crucial topic for both researchers and the insurance industry. For example, Margarida Liberato (University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro) presented a

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Julia H. Keller, Christian M. Grams, Michael Riemer, Heather M. Archambault, Lance Bosart, James D. Doyle, Jenni L. Evans, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., Kyle Griffin, Patrick A. Harr, Naoko Kitabatake, Ron McTaggart-Cowan, Florian Pantillon, Julian F. Quinting, Carolyn A. Reynolds, Elizabeth A. Ritchie, Ryan D. Torn, and Fuqing Zhang

-pressure conditions along the North American west coast, with highest values occurring along the coast of California and over Alaska. The atmospheric river in the western flank of the second downstream ridge ( Fig. 1c ) makes landfall in Alaska and British Columbia, resulting in heavy precipitation ( Fig. 1d ). A cold-air outbreak occurs over continental and eastern North America. Further amplification of this pattern eventually leads to a massive omega block over the west coast of North America and associated

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Andreas Schlueter, Andreas H. Fink, and Peter Knippertz

. , 139 , 2704 – 2722 , . 10.1175/MWR-D-10-05028.1 Vitart , F. , and A. W. Robertson , 2018 : The sub-seasonal to seasonal prediction project (S2S) and the prediction of extreme events . npj Climate Atmos. Sci. , 1 , 3549 , . Vizy , E. K. , and K. H. Cook , 2009 : A mechanism for African monsoon breaks: Mediterranean cold air surges . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D01104 ,

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Roderick van der Linden, Andreas H. Fink, Joaquim G. Pinto, and Tan Phan-Van

dominantly influenced by TC-related rainfall. Previous studies put a focus on extreme events in Vietnam occurring during the transition from the rainy to the dry season in October and November (e.g., Yokoi and Matsumoto 2008 ; Chen et al. 2012 ; Wu et al. 2011 ; Wu et al. 2012 ; Van der Linden et al. 2016a ). In these cases, interactions between tropical large- and synoptic-scale waves, the Borneo vortex, boreal fall cold surges of the northeasterlies over the South China Sea with the ITCZ, and the

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Peter Vogel, Peter Knippertz, Andreas H. Fink, Andreas Schlueter, and Tilmann Gneiting

. Forecasting , 32 , 1041 – 1056 , . 10.1175/WAF-D-16-0142.1 Vizy , E. K. , and K. H. Cook , 2014 : Impact of cold air surges on rainfall variability in the Sahel and wet African tropics: A multi-scale analysis . Climate Dyn. , 43 , 1057 – 1081 , . 10.1007/s00382-013-1953-z Wheeler , M. , and G. N. Kiladis , 1999 : Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber

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Volkmar Wirth, Michael Riemer, Edmund K. M. Chang, and Olivia Martius

. Kiladis , and B. Liebmann , 2002 : Upper-air wave trains over the Pacific Ocean and wintertime cold surges in tropical-subtropical South America leading to freezes in southern and southeastern Brazil . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 73 , 223 – 242 , . 10.1007/s00704-001-0669-x Martínez-Alvarado , O. , E. Madonna , S. Gray , and H. Joos , 2016 : A route to systematic error in forecasts of Rossby waves . Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc. , 142 , 196

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