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Chunyan Li, Wei Huang, and Brian Milan

zone in the frequency response function ( Roberts and Roberts 1978 ). The correlation coefficients between each forcing variable and subtidal current at each site during the observational periods (2013/14 and 2014/15) are calculated with or without time shift for examining the lag in time between the passage of the cold front and the significant change in subtidal flows. The spectra for weather-forcing factors (air pressure and north–south and east–west wind components) as well as the cross spectra

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Shiqiu Peng, Yineng Li, and Lian Xie

. Mon. Wea. Rev. , 108 , 1212 – 1218 . Jones, J. E. , and Davies A. M. , 1998 : Storm surge computations for the Irish Sea using a three-dimensional numerical model including wave–current interaction . Cont. Shelf Res. , 18 , 201 – 251 . Kazuo, S. , Tohru K. , Masaru K. , and Nadao K. , 2010 : Numerical simulation of Myanmar Cyclone Nargis and the associated storm surge. Part II: Ensemble prediction . J. Meteor. Soc. Japan , 88 , 547 – 570 . Kondo, J. , 1975 : Air–sea bulk

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K. R. Knupp, T. Coleman, D. Phillips, R. Ware, D. Cimini, F. Vandenberghe, J. Vivekanandan, and E. Westwater

supercooled fog Prolonged upslope weather conditions occurred in the Denver (DEN) area from 14 to 17 February 2001. An initial cold front passed over the MWRP on 14 February. A secondary surge of cold air associated with a larger, colder, and more intense trailing anticyclone reinforced the upslope flow around Denver on 16–17 February ( Fig. A1a ). Radiometric retrievals up to 2 km AGL (ground level is about 1.6 km MSL at Boulder) on 16 February 2001 are shown in Fig. 2 . Advection of cold air behind the

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Chunyan Li, Eddie Weeks, Wei Huang, Brian Milan, and Renhao Wu

the unmanned boat. Time of an atmospheric frontal passage (vertical dashed lines). Thresholds for extreme events discussed in this paper (thick dashed horizontal lines). Table 2. Cold/warm front occurrence time (UTC). Y: year. M: month. D: day. H: hour. Boldface lines correspond to the events discussed in detail. 1) Cold front, 15 November 2006 A low air pressure was centered in northern Texas at 0000 UTC 15 November 2006. A couple of cold fronts were pushing from its north. Another cold front

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Haobo Tan, Jietai Mao, Huanhuan Chen, P. W. Chan, Dui Wu, Fei Li, and Tao Deng

. Moreover, if the upper-air ascent data contain the real profile of cloud liquid water, the retrieval of the water vapor density for the radiometer could be improved greatly. 5. Case studies By applying the PSR method as discussed above, the radiometer observations in two typical weather phenomena over southern China are analyzed; namely, Typhoon Hagupit, during the period 23–24 September 2008, and the arrival of the cold monsoon surge, during the period 7–9 November 2008. At 2245 UTC 23 September 2008

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Kun-Peng Zang, Ling-Xi Zhou, and Ju-Ying Wang

, frequent wave cyclones, associated cold fronts, and warm conveyor belts, which lifted the Asian air to the free troposphere ( Merrill et al. 1997 ; Bey et al. 2001 ; Jacob et al. 2003 ; Zhang et al. 2007 ; Chen et al. 2013 ). Thus, the distributions of CO 2 and CH 4 in the China Sea shelf boundary layer could be mainly influenced by air mass transported from the Asian continent, where high mixing ratios of CO 2 and CH 4 were emitted as a result of natural processes and anthropogenic activities

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Xingru Feng, Junchuan Sun, Dezhou Yang, Baoshu Yin, Guandong Gao, and Weiqi Wan

–wave interactions under tropical conditions ( Smith et al. 2013 ), the wave state in the Caspian Sea ( Bruneau and Toumi 2016 ), and the outbreak of extreme cold air over the Adriatic Sea ( Ricchi et al. 2016 ). However, the studies mentioned above adopted only one type of C d and were unable to discuss the sensitivity of the simulation results to the air–sea momentum flux parameterizations. Guan et al. (2012) studied the effect of surface roughness parameterization methods on the simulated typhoon path and

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Caroline M. Kiefer, Craig B. Clements, and Brian E. Potter

time of the radiosonde’s thermistor and capacitive hygrometer were conducted using hot and cold water baths. Results from these tests indicated that there was some hysteresis between the ambient air to hot bath and the hot bath to ambient air and that the actual response times of the thermistor and hygrometer were 2.1 and 1.7 s, respectively. The response time of the sensors was adequate given the speed of the UAS (~4 m s −1 ) and the precision of the radiosonde’s GPS. b. Experimental design The

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J. P. Boyle

Garmin GPS is used to determine the drift track and synchronize all clocks to within 1 s. During November and early December 1998 a number of separate drift experiments were performed. This period was chosen because cold air and high winds promote large heat fluxes, improving the MSF signal-to-noise ratio. The majority of drift legs occurred at night. Analysis of nighttime data is simplified because there is essentially no need for empirically determined solar response coefficients, that is, black

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Eugene W. McCaul Jr., Howard B. Bluestein, and Richard J. Doviak

instability of the sheared interfacebetween the warm and cold air on either side of thegust front. In order to assess the plausibility of the first tiltinghypothesis, we needed to estimate the vertical shearjust ahead of the gust front. Because the lidar aircraftoverflew TTS at 2020 UTC, just prior to gust frontpassage there, we were able to estimate the boundarylayer vertical shear by comparing the lidar winds overTTS with simultaneous surface wind measurementsmade at TTS. The results indicated a

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