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Joseph Galewsky

improve our interpretations of the suite of measurements made at this site, at other subtropical sites worldwide, and from remote sensing platforms. b. South American cold-air surges Synoptic-scale surges of cold, midlatitude air along major mountain ranges are common worldwide and have been recognized along the Andes ( Marengo et al. 1997 ; Krishnamurti et al. 1999 ), Rocky Mountains ( Colle and Mass 1995 ), the Himalaya ( Wu and Chan 1995 , 1997 ), and in Central America ( Schultz and Bracken 1998

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Yueyue Yu, Ming Cai, Rongcai Ren, and Huug M. van den Dool

highly variable on synoptic scales. The main synoptic- and planetary-scale precursors to cold air outbreaks in North America include the variability of polar anticyclones ( Wexler 1951 ; Colucci and Davenport 1987 ), positive sea level pressure anomalies over the Alaska–Yukon border ( Walsh et al. 2001 ), and coupling of the ridge over the Arctic and the trough over the Great Lakes region ( Konrad 1996 ). For cold air surges in Asia, an abrupt expansion of the Siberian high toward East Asia plays a

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Yueyue Yu, Rongcai Ren, and Ming Cai

the Great Lakes region ( Konrad 1996 ). Elsewhere, in East Asia, the intensification and expansion of the Siberian high are known to be the triggering mechanism for cold air surges ( Ding 1990 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Gong and Ho 2004 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005 ). Palmer (2014) pointed out that intensifying Rossby waves within the jet stream, excited by the latent heat release over the warming tropical west Pacific may have contributed to the extremely cold 2013–14 winter in the United States

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Paul H. Herzegh and Peter V. Hobbs

AUGUST 1981 PAUL H. HERZEGH AND PETER V. HOBBS 1771The Mesoscale and Microscale Structure and Organization of Clouds and Precipitationin Midlatitude Cyclones. IV: Vertical Air Motions and Microphysical Structures ofPrefrontal Surge Clouds and Cold-Frontal Clouds~ PAUL H. HERZEGHThe Center for the Environment and Man, Inc., Hartford, CT 06120 PETER V. HoBBsDepartment of Atmospheric Sciences

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Sylvain Mailler and François Lott

the structure of the North American cold surges, with cold air masses traveling southward from Canada to the Gulf of Mexico ( Colle and Mass 1995 ) and occasionally reaching the eastern Pacific across Central America ( Schultz et al. 1997 ). At D + 4 and after, the composites lose significance more rapidly than in the case of the TP (not shown). The shift of the high pressure anomaly from the northwestern slopes of the Rockies to their eastern slopes between D − 2 and D + 2 explains that T̃

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Jinlong Huang and Wenshou Tian

-scale cold-air outbreaks 1 month in advance . Bull. Amer. Meteor. Soc. , 97 , 1475 – 1489 , . 10.1175/BAMS-D-14-00287.1 Chen , T. C. , W. R. Huang , and J. Yoon , 2004 : Interannual variation of the East Asian cold surge activity . J. Climate , 17 , 401 – 413 ,<0401:IVOTEA>2.0.CO;2 . 10.1175/1520-0442(2004)017<0401:IVOTEA>2.0.CO;2 Cohen , J. , and Coauthors , 2014 : Recent Arctic amplification and

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Toshiki Iwasaki, Takamichi Shoji, Yuki Kanno, Masahiro Sawada, Masashi Ujiie, and Koutarou Takaya

feature of the polar cold airmass streams. In this work, the two main streams identified in the climatological mean states are consistent with pathways of intermittent cold surges reported in many previous works (e.g., Dallavalle and Bosart 1975 ; Chang et al. 1979 ; Joung and Hitchman 1982 ; Lau and Lau 1984 ). The routing of the main streams can be seen as follows: In the case of the EA stream, the cold air mass originates because of the diabatic cooling over the Eurasian continent. High

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Yuki Kanno and Toshiki Iwasaki

the conventional Eulerian means. The ETD circulation is purely a diabatic circulation, in which air masses rise in the warmer subtropics and descend in the colder high latitudes ( Johnson et al. 1985 ). To compensate imbalances of airmass distributions, warm (cold) air is transported poleward (equatorward) in the upper (lower) branch of the ETD circulation ( Townsend and Johnson 1985 ; Held and Schneider 1999 ; Czaja and Marshall 2006 ; Iwasaki and Mochizuki 2012 ; Laliberté et al. 2013

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Eric D. Skyllingstad and James B. Edson

1. Introduction Air–sea interaction over the midlatitude oceans is a major component in the seasonal cycle of the atmospheric heat and moisture content. Dry, cold continental air produced over land gains heat and moisture when traveling over the ocean, typically through moist convective processes. As the air warms, rapid cooling of the ocean is forced, which can penetrate to depths of hundreds of meters in the weakly stratified water masses commonly referred to as “mode” waters that form

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Wenqi Zhang and Dehai Luo

American cold anomalies and downstream air temperature anomalies over the North Atlantic and Europe. Moreover, our study further provides a theoretical explanation for why the GB has such a slow decay under the influence of BDL SIC decline. This paper is organized as follows: In section 2 , we describe the data and method. Based on the reanalysis data the basic characteristics of the GB change related to the BDL SIC and North Atlantic mid- to high-latitude (NAMH) zonal wind changes are presented in

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