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Tae-Won Park, Chang-Hoi Ho, and Song Yang

described above, some studies have suggested that some cold surges are distinctive from the wave train type. For example, Takaya and Nakamura (2005b) documented two different origins of the intraseasonal amplification of the Siberian high: a wave train from the Atlantic and a blocking from the Pacific. In fact, the two origins lead to different types of cold air outbreaks over East Asia. Park et al. (2008) reported that the expansions of the Siberian high and the subsequent cold surges are caused by

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Muhammad Rais Abdillah, Yuki Kanno, Toshiki Iwasaki, and Jun Matsumoto

1. Introduction East Asian winter is intermittently intruded by the sudden release of cold airmasses (CAM) from the high latitudes, which affects weather variability across the Far East and the North Pacific. This so-called cold air outbreak or cold surge event typically leads to rapid temperature drops, high pressure, and strong winds for one to several days ( Chang et al. 1979 ; Ding and Krishnamurti 1987 ; Zhang et al. 1997 ; Shoji et al. 2014 ). Severe cold surges are well known for

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Xiaoye Yang, Gang Zeng, Guwei Zhang, and Zhongxian Li

. J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D02112 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2008JD010929 . Wang , Z. , and Y. Ding , 2006 : Climate change of the cold wave frequency of China in the last 53 years and the possible reasons (in Chinese). Chin. J. Atmos. Sci. , 30 , 1068 – 1076 . Woo , S.-H. , B. Kim , J.-H. Jeong , S. Kim , and G. Lim , 2012 : Decadal changes in surface air temperature variability and cold surge characteristics over northeast Asia and their relation with the Arctic

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Bo Pang, Riyu Lu, and Rongcai Ren

1. Introduction A cold surge over the South China Sea (SCS) features an abrupt outbreak of northerly or northeasterly winds and is a typical but severe weather phenomenon during the boreal winter ( Ramage 1971 ; Chang et al. 1983 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ; Chang et al. 2006 , 2011 ). As a form of southward propagation of northerlies from the midlatitudes, cold surges can result in a drop of air temperature (e.g., Boyle and Chen 1987 ; Lu and Chang 2009 ), an intensification of tropical

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Xuejuan Ren, Xiu-Qun Yang, and Haibo Hu

studies have shown that robust subseasonal variations of E occur around the Kuroshio and its extension [Kuroshio–Oyashio Extension (KOE)] region during winter ( Qiu 2002 ; Kwon et al. 2010 ; Grodsky et al. 2009 ). This study focuses on these variations and their connections with the atmospheric circulation and water vapor transport over the North Pacific basin on a subseasonal time scale. Cold air surge (CAS) activities over the Asian coastal water can cause subseasonal E anomalies in the KOE

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Zachary J. Handlos and Jonathan E. Martin

anomalous cold air and anomalous northerly wind over the East and South China Sea regions suggests that anomalous cold air advection is occurring there. Anomalously warm temperatures are present on the eastern side of the anomalous anticyclonic flow to the east of the “northerly cold surge” feature. b. East Asian winter monsoon cold surges and jet superpositions The EAWM is a boreal winter large-scale circulation phenomenon that is strongly a function of the strength of the Siberian–Mongolian surface

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Bo Pang and Riyu Lu

1. Introduction A cold surge over the South China Sea (SCS) is characterized by a period of strong winds and is one of the most hazardous weather phenomena occurring during the Asian winter monsoon ( Ramage 1971 ; Lau and Chang 1987 ; Chang et al. 2006 ; Chang et al. 2011 ). The arrival of a cold surge is often accompanied by the outbreak of northerly winds, an increase in surface pressure, and a decrease in the surface air temperature ( Chang et al. 1983 ; Boyle and Chen 1992 ; Chan and

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Sunyong Kim, Jong-Seong Kug, and Kyong-Hwan Seo

.-H. , C.-H. Ho , B.-M. Kim , and W.-T. Kwon , 2005 : Influence of the Madden-Julian Oscillation on wintertime surface air temperature and cold surges in East Asia . J. Geophys. Res. , 110 , D11104 , https://doi.org/10.1029/2004JD005408 . 10.1029/2004JD005408 Jeong , J.-H. , B. Kim , C. Ho , and Y. Noh , 2008 : Systematic variation in wintertime precipitation in East Asia by MJO-induced extratropical vertical motion . J. Climate , 21 , 788 – 801 , https://doi.org/10

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Yuntao Jian, Xiaoxia Lin, Wen Zhou, Maoqiu Jian, Marco Y. T. Leung, and Paxson K. Y. Cheung

enhances the meridional flow and transports more cold air from the polar region, which increases cold mass convergence over Siberia and intensifies the Siberian high ( Chang 2004 ; Ding and Krishnamurti 1987 ; Ding 1990 , 2004 ; Takaya and Nakamura 2005a , b ). Therefore, during winters with more (less) blocking, an intensified (weakened) Siberian high tends to strengthen (weaken) the EAWM, with more (fewer) cold surges breaking out toward East Asia ( Joung and Hitchman 1982 ; Wu and Leung 2009

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Lei Song and Renguang Wu

next section to reveal the important differences that are required for cold events to reach lower latitudes. The cold event of January 2016 will be briefly described after the presentation of the composite analysis. Previous studies have documented cold air outbreaks in East Asia (termed as cold surges in general). Here, we are focused on those strong cold air outbreaks over a large area of eastern China. Although the mid- to high-latitude circulation features of the strong cold events revealed in

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