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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

control over variations of air temperatures over Japan, focusing on the anomalous cold winter of 2012/13 in the Northern Hemisphere. One of most important components of atmospheric circulation in the winter over the Northern Hemisphere is the Arctic Oscillation (AO) as defined by Thompson and Wallace (1998) . The winter AO is strongly coupled with SAT fluctuations over midlatitudes ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The negative phase of the AO directly influences the occurrence of cold surges over East

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Youichi Tanimoto, Kou Shimoyama, and Shoichi Mori

those profiles observed between 1000 and 1100 JST. Note that the vertical axis in Fig. 8a is the pressure differential relative to the land surface [ (hPa)] at the HAC airport, that is, (e.g., Ninomiya 1977 ). Even during strong cold surges caused by the northwesterly East Asian monsoon, regular flight operation during our observation period was almost continuous, and thereby provides us with the opportunity for very frequent sampling of the vertical temperature profiles. While several data

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