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Mark R. Jury

African monsoon breaks: Mediterranean cold air surges . J. Geophys. Res. , 114 , D01104 , doi: 10.1029/2008JD010654 . Wheeler , M. , and G. N. Kiladis , 1999 : Convectively coupled equatorial waves: Analysis of clouds and temperature in the wavenumber–frequency domain . J. Atmos. Sci. , 56 , 374 – 399 , doi: 10.1175/1520-0469(1999)056<0374:CCEWAO>2.0.CO;2 . Yang , G. Y. , B. Hoskins , and J. Slingo , 2003 : Convectively coupled equatorial waves: A new methodology for identifying

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

is stretched to better represent the near surface and the bottom ice layers. Vertical stretching also allows an explicit representation of the air–ice–water interface for ice shelves. The freeboard for most ice shelves is well less than 100 m. If the ice layer is uniformly divided, as in most peer models, it is difficult to set the lateral boundary conditions according to different configurations of ice, water, and air. SEGMENT-Ice also has a four-dimensional variational data assimilation (4DVAR

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Tristan Ballard, Richard Seager, Jason E. Smerdon, Benjamin I. Cook, Andrea J. Ray, Balaji Rajagopalan, Yochanan Kushnir, Jennifer Nakamura, and Naomi Henderson

). Furthermore, the recent surge in oil and gas extraction from the Bakken formation has led to concerns over wetland groundwater contamination as well ( Preston et al. 2014 ). Given the above considerations and the long list of stakeholders that they involve, including conservationists, hunters, homeowners, farmers, local municipalities, and the waterfowl themselves, the future of the PPR, its dependence on climate, and the expected impacts of climate change on the region require a detailed investigation

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Franz X. Faust, Cristóbal Gnecco, Hermann Mannstein, and Jörg Stamm

1. Introduction The influence of climate on human behavior has been a subject of discussion since Herodotus's time. Yet, the question regarding how human behavior affects climate did not surge as a public interest until the second half of the twentieth century. One way to observe the anthropogenic influence on climate is to look at phases in which we can identify a dramatic change or impact on the life of a significant number of people on vast regions. One of these eras began with the so

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Soumaya Belmecheri, Flurin Babst, Amy R. Hudson, Julio Betancourt, and Valerie Trouet

112 years devastated fruit crops across the upper Midwest and Great Lakes regions ( Ault et al. 2013 ; Karl et al. 2012 ). Persistent cold temperatures and heavy snowfall across Canada and the northeastern United States in the winter of 2013–14 resulted in extensive power failures and massive cancellations in airline and rail services. The severe 2012–15 drought in California culminated in the lowest reconstructed snowpack of the past 500 years in the Sierra Nevada ( Belmecheri et al. 2016

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Arne Melsom, Steven D. Meyers, James J. O'Brien, Harley E. Hurlburt, and Joseph E. Metzger

extratropical oceans in two ways: locally, through changes in the surface winds, and, remotely, via tropically generated, coastally trapped Kelvin waves. Although the effect on the ocean circulation by surface winds is local, the surface wind may in itself be remotely forced by atmospheric wave motions. Kelvin waves associated with El Niño warm events suppress upwelling of denser and nutrient-rich water masses, and those associated with El Viejo (La Niña) cold events enhance such upwelling. Both alter the

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Diandong Ren and Lance M. Leslie

1. Introduction Tropical cyclones (TCs) are the most devastating weather systems ( Henderson-Sellers et al. 1998 ) that affect resource-rich northwest Western Australia (NWA; equator–40°S, 80°–140°E; Figure 1 ), as they often generate strong winds, large waves and swell, and severe flooding from both heavy rainfall and high storm surges. The NWA basin is relatively less well studied because of its historically low population density. However, the economic and societal costs of TCs are very

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A. H. M. Siddique-E-Akbor, Faisal Hossain, Safat Sikder, C. K. Shum, Steven Tseng, Yuchan Yi, F. J. Turk, and Ashutosh Limaye

.g., Cherkauer et al. (2003) for cold land process updates, Andreadis et al. (2009) for snow model updates, Bowling and Lettenmaier (2010) for lakes and wetlands]. The model has been widely applied for purposes such as seasonal hydrological forecasting, climate change impacts studies, and water and energy budget studies, among various other applications. VIC’s distinguishing hydrologic features are its representation of the role of subgrid variability as a control on soil water storage and in turn

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Olivia Kellner and Dev Niyogi

–Southern Oscillation ( Agee and Zurn-Birkhimer 1998 ; Rhome et al. 2000 ; Nunn and DeGaetano 2004 ; Mayes et al. 2007 ; Cook and Schaefer 2008 ) and synoptic features ( Rose et al. 2004 ) have been completed as well. Research investigating tornadoes and population notes a possible feedback between higher tornado frequencies in areas of higher population and an increase in tornado reports with a surge in storm spotters in the late 1980s and early 1990s ( Changnon 1982 ; Twisdale 1982 ; Tescon et al. 1983

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