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Emily A. Slinskey, Paul C. Loikith, Duane E. Waliser, Bin Guan, and Andrew Martin

1. Introduction Atmospheric rivers (ARs) are long, narrow regions of strong horizontal water vapor transport ( Zhu and Newell 1994 , 1998 ; Ralph et al. 2004 ) responsible for a multitude of hydrometeorological impacts ( Guan et al. 2010 ; Dettinger et al. 2011 ; Neiman et al. 2011 ; Moore et al. 2012 ; Dettinger 2013 ; Mahoney et al. 2016 ). Typically associated with a low-level jet (LLJ) ahead of the cold front in the warm sector of an extratropical cyclone ( AMS 2017 ), ARs cover only

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Michael L. Kaplan, Christopher S. Adaniya, Phillip J. Marzette, K. C. King, S. Jeffrey Underwood, and John M. Lewis

with the 300-hPa trough/ridge system from southwesterly flow downstream and northwesterly flow upstream, a 500-hPa thermal ridge downstream and thermal trough upstream, synoptic-scale warm air advection downstream in the thermal ridge at 500 hPa, and cold air advection upstream in the thermal trough at 500 hPa as well as a distinct synoptic-scale plume of column-integrated precipitable water greater than 30 mm just downstream of the 300-hPa trough. A summary of tropical wave activity, which

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Anita D. Rapp, Alexander G. Peterson, Oliver W. Frauenfeld, Steven M. Quiring, and E. Brendan Roark

the Caribbean coast typically show a secondary precipitation peak in November–January, with a maximum in December. This winter peak has been associated with a secondary Caribbean low-level jet maximum as well as cold surges from nortes ( Schultz et al. 1998 ). These midlatitude frontal systems can penetrate to Central America, with the air mass moistening as it crosses the Caribbean and enhancing the strength of the trade winds. The associated winter precipitation peak is reflected in the storm

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William K. M. Lau and Kyu-Myong Kim

the surface ( Krishnamurti and Hawkins 1970 ). During period II, in conjunction with the development of the 500-hPa blocking pattern, the low-level anticyclone over northern Europe and Russia also shifted eastward to western Siberia ( Fig. 4d ). On the southeastern side of the anticyclone, the low-level northeasterly and northerly flow brought a tongue of dry and cold (sinking) air from Siberia to Iran and eastern Pakistan, setting the stage for a confrontation with the warm, moist (rising) air

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Kazuaki Yasunaga and Masashi Tomochika

Japan. Owing to the warm current and the large heat capacity of water, the monthly mean sea surface temperatures (SSTs) are maintained above 10°C near the coastal areas of the Sea of Japan even in the middle of winter (e.g., Fig. 1a ). The NW monsoonal flow carries the cold and dry air from the continent to the Sea of Japan, and the continental air absorbs the sensible heat and latent heat over the warm ocean. As a result, the lower atmosphere gradually becomes destabilized as the air crosses the

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Ju-Mee Ryoo, Sen Chiao, J. Ryan Spackman, Laura T. Iraci, F. Martin Ralph, Andrew Martin, Randall M. Dole, Josette E. Marrero, Emma L. Yates, T. Paul Bui, Jonathan M. Dean-Day, and Cecilia S. Chang

well beyond the gap exit. Using a mesoscale model, Steenburgh et al. (1998) examined a gap flow through a low-elevation gap in the Sierra Madre over the Gulf of Tehuantepec during a Central American cold surge event (e.g., 12–14 March 1993). The flow reached its maximum speed at the surface of ~25 m s −1 offshore. Upon exiting the gap, the locally unbalanced flow turns anticyclonically due to the Coriolis force, becoming parallel to the terrain axis ( Valenzuela and Kingsmill 2017 ). TTAs

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Guoxiong Wu, Yimin Liu, Qiong Zhang, Anmin Duan, Tongmei Wang, Rijin Wan, Xin Liu, Weiping Li, Zaizhi Wang, and Xiaoyun Liang

concerning the mechanical effects of the TP on large-scale motion, the winter cold surge, and the summer negative vorticity source over the TP. The review also covers the importance of the thermal influences of the TP on the seasonal circulation transition and Asian monsoon onset based on different datasets and numerical experiments ( Ye and Gao 1979 ; Tao and Chen 1987 ; Wu 2004 ; Wu et al. 1997a , 2002 , 2004 ; Liu et al. 2001 ; Liu X. et al. 2001 , 2002 ; Mao et al. 2002a , b ; Wang and Lin

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Julian C. Brimelow and Gerhard W. Reuter

moisture-laden air. Stewart et al. (1998) and Smirnov and Moore (2001) stressed the importance of understanding the atmospheric processes that transport water vapor into the MRB, because changes in the hydrological processes within the river basin can have important consequences for the regional climate. For example, Strong et al. (2002) found that the MRB acts as a moisture sink for most of the year, but during the summer months, can act as a source of moisture on account of enhanced

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S. Jeffrey Underwood, Michael L. Kaplan, and K. C. King

. This stronger pressure gradient coincides with an initial surge of colder air that is juxtaposed with strong warm-air advection from the south and southwest in advance of the front boundary, as evidenced by the 1000–500-hPa thickness analysis at T −48 . At T −24 , a strong thickness gradient exists across the central and eastern Pacific—the result of warm temperatures in the tropics and the southward advance of multiple cold pools from north of 50°N. This baroclinic environment gives rise to 1000

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Maofeng Liu and James A. Smith

. 1985 ) has provided a useful framework for examining hurricane–trough interactions. Hurricane Floyd (1999) exhibited a left-of-track rainfall distribution during ET in which the juxtaposition of an upper-level positive PV anomaly from the cold core trough and lower-level PV anomaly from the warm core hurricane produced a deep baroclinic zone along the U.S. East Coast ( Atallah and Bosart 2003 ). Atallah et al. (2007) synthesized rainfall distribution from landfalling TCs over the eastern United

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