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Nicholas D. Metz, Heather M. Archambault, Alan F. Srock, Thomas J. Galarneau Jr., and Lance F. Bosart

1. Introduction Continuous regions of north–south-oriented high terrain can modulate the movement of synoptic-scale cold air masses by contributing to terrain-channeled surges of this cold air into subtropical and tropical latitudes (e.g., Myers 1964 ; DiMego et al. 1976 ; Parmenter 1976 ; Garreaud 1999 , 2000 , 2001 ; Lupo et al. 2001 ). Preferred pathways for these cold surges have been identified to the lee of many mountain ranges worldwide ( Fig. 1 ) including the Rockies (e

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Hoffman H. N. Cheung, Wen Zhou, Sai-ming Lee, and Hang-wai Tong

.1175/1520-0442(2003)016<0057:UTPOSS>2.0.CO;2 . Ding , Y. , 1990 : Buildup, air-mass transformation and propagating of Siberian high and its relations to cold surge in East Asia . Meteor. Atmos. Phys. , 44 , 281 – 292 , doi: 10.1007/BF01026822 . Ding , Y. , 1994 : Monsoons over China. Kluwer Academic Publishers, 420 pp . Ding , Y. , Z. Wang , Y. Song , and J. Zhang , 2008 : Causes of the unprecedented freezing disaster in January 2008 and its possible association with the global warming . Acta Meteor. Sin

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Kevin A. Biernat, Lance F. Bosart, and Daniel Keyser

incursions of cold air masses into a region that result in an episode of anomalously low surface temperatures (e.g., Konrad 1996 ; Walsh et al. 2001 ; Cellitti et al. 2006 ). TPVs are cold-core features and are associated with anomalously cold air throughout the depth of the troposphere (e.g., Cavallo and Hakim 2010 ). Several studies show evidence of tropospheric-deep cold pools located within and beneath TPVs and upper-tropospheric cyclonic PV anomalies (e.g., Defant and Taba 1957 ; Boyle and

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Nurjanna J. Trilaksono, Shigenori Otsuka, and Shigeo Yoden

airmass transformation of the cold surge that is associated with the Jakarta flood event. The air mass is dry in the Northern Hemisphere, but it gets moistened over the ocean, which is consistent with the description by Johnson and Houze (1987) . To see the vertical extents of the time variations described above, the time–height cross sections of the ensemble mean of the model-simulated quantities averaged over the region of West Java (5.5°–8°S, 105.5°–108.5°E) are shown in Fig. 6 for meridional

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Sylvain Mailler and François Lott

cold surges]. Although the intrusion of cold anticyclonic air into subtropical latitudes can occur in the absence of mountains ( Sprenger et al. 2013 ), the mountain forcing dynamically amplifies and helps to focus them regionally ( Garreaud 2001 ). In an f -plane geometry, this dynamical forcing can be measured as the integral over the mountain surface of the pressure force exerted on the atmosphere and of the surface stresses due to the boundary layer and subgrid-scale orography (SSO

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156 MONTHLY WEATHER REVIEW AUQUST 1950AN UNUSUAL SURGE OF COLD AIR ACROSS THE NORTHWESTUNITED STATES ON AUGUST 22 AND 23, 1950H. DEAN PARRY AND LEWIS C. NORTONWBAN Analysis Center, U. S. Weather BureauWashington, D. C.INTRODUCTIONOne of the few marked weather changes which occurredin the United States during the relatively inactive monthof August 1950 was the sharp drop in temperatures whichtook place in the northwestern States on August 22 and23. For example, on August 22 the maximum tempera

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Yuta Ando, Masayo Ogi, and Yoshihiro Tachibana

control over variations of air temperatures over Japan, focusing on the anomalous cold winter of 2012/13 in the Northern Hemisphere. One of most important components of atmospheric circulation in the winter over the Northern Hemisphere is the Arctic Oscillation (AO) as defined by Thompson and Wallace (1998) . The winter AO is strongly coupled with SAT fluctuations over midlatitudes ( Thompson and Wallace 2000 ). The negative phase of the AO directly influences the occurrence of cold surges over East

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Jessica K. Turner, John Gyakum, and Shawn M. Milrad

deviations colder than the climatological daily winter [December–February (DJF)] temperature at these stations. Contrary to the classic view of their structure as a shallow temperature inversion created through surface radiation alone, these air masses typically develop through a deep layer in multiple stages, with in situ intensification and associated cold-air damming. Surface radiation has a role, but the diabatic processes of ice crystal radiation and sublimation were also found to be important. The

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Leah S. Campbell, W. James Steenburgh, Yoshinori Yamada, Masayuki Kawashima, and Yasushi Fujiyoshi

color fill represents urban areas. White dot represents location of the Sapporo radar, cyan dot the ILTS meteorological station, and red dot the Kitahiroshima radar. Adapted from . When a cold, continental air mass flows over a relatively warm body of water such as the Sea of Japan or the Great Lakes of North America, sensible and latent heat fluxes from the water surface warm, moisten, and destabilize the atmosphere, producing moist convection that typically extends upward to a

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Lukas Papritz and Harald Sodemann

are accompanied by intense precipitation as the air masses ascend in the so-called warm conveyor belt (e.g., Browning 1990 ; Madonna et al. 2014 ) or are steered toward the steep orographic rise along the western Norwegian coast ( Stohl et al. 2008 ; Azad and Sorteberg 2017 ). These warm conditions are subsequently followed by the advection of cold and dry Arctic air masses behind the cyclone’s cold front. The Arctic air masses are typically colder than the underlying sea surface, and are

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