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Ross N. Hoffman, Peter Dailey, Susanna Hopsch, Rui M. Ponte, Katherine Quinn, Emma M. Hill, and Brian Zachry

model (CAT model) to evaluate the risk of hurricane storm surge to all existing residential and commercial real estate along the U.S. Gulf and East Coasts ( section 3 ). ( Appendix A is a glossary of insurance industry terms; appendix B provides a brief technical description of the AIR Worldwide Corp. U.S. Hurricane Catastrophe Model that is used in this study.) In practical applications of CAT modeling, probability estimates of risk due to a single or multiple hazards are made for the particular

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Kathleen Sherman-Morris, Karla B. Antonelli, and Carrick C. Williams

1. Introduction The loss of life caused by storm surge from Hurricane Sandy in 2012 ( Blake et al. 2013 ) combined with reports noting residents underestimated their level of risk from storm surge ( Baker et al. 2012 ) help demonstrate a need to focus on the communication of storm surge potential. When computerized hurricane path/forecast track graphics were first released in 1996, the National Hurricane Center’s goal was to help provide “a ready, unambiguous description of what’s going on

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J. D. Tamerius, M. S. Perzanowski, L. M. Acosta, J. S. Jacobson, I. F. Goldstein, J. W. Quinn, A. G. Rundle, and J. Shaman

are often controlled by outdoor air thermostats ( Environmental Defense Fund 2009 ). Further, apartment dwellers often do not pay for heating, whereas those in single and two family houses often do. Indoor temperature during the cool season also increases as the floor of the dwelling increases. Because air density decreases as temperature increases, heated air may rise into higher floors and increase temperatures at these levels. This process may also draw cold outside air in laterally at lower

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Samuel J. Childs and Russ S. Schumacher

the high vulnerability of the Southeast due to nocturnal tornadoes over rural, forested areas ( Paul et al. 2003 ; Ashley et al. 2008 ). Fig . 3. Tornado tracks for the four NDJF case studies, color coded by EF-scale intensity. Following the late November outbreak was a quieter period, with several surges of Arctic air penetrating southward into the United States. While December proved to be a very inactive tornado month, January 2017 was quite the opposite. On 2 January, 35 tornadoes were

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Jonathan M. Garner, William C. Iwasko, Tyler D. Jewel, Brad R. Charboneau, Alex A. Dodd, and Kathleen M. Zontos

were plotted for each hazard extracted from Storm Data . Hazard graphs that displayed visually identified maxima in normalized fatalities for a specific age range were processed for additional analysis. Those hazards included heat, cold, tropical cyclones, tornadoes, areal and flash flooding, winter weather, lightning, wildfires, rip currents, high surf, and avalanches. Hazards that were associated with small sample sizes or that, after being graphed, lacked a clear signal showing age-group maxima

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Alexander Hall

weather market, not only in the United Kingdom but also internationally. 2. The postwar Met Office Founded in 1854 as an office within the Board of Trade, in 1919 the British Meteorological Office had been moved under the control of the recently established Air Ministry. During the Second World War scientists made great developments in meteorological technologies and forecasting techniques. By the end of the conflict in 1945, the MO was playing a significant role in military and government

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Bogdan Antonescu, David M. Schultz, Hugo M. A. M. Ricketts, and Dragoş Ene

continuous process of transformation from one to another. Thus, when the heat from the sun reaches the surface of Earth, it mixes with the cold and moist water to form the moist and cool exhalation (noninflammable, “essentially like air”; Frisinger 1972 ), which is associated with clouds and rain. When the heat from the sun interacts with the cold and dry Earth, the result is the dry and warm exhalation (inflammable, “essentially like fire”; Frisinger 1972 ), which is associated with wind, thunder, and

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Randall S. Cerveny, Pierre Bessemoulin, Christopher C. Burt, Mary Ann Cooper, Zhang Cunjie, Ashraf Dewan, Jonathan Finch, Ronald L. Holle, Laurence Kalkstein, Andries Kruger, Tsz-cheung Lee, Rodney Martínez, M. Mohapatra, D. R. Pattanaik, Thomas C. Peterson, Scott Sheridan, Blair Trewin, Andrew Tait, and M. M. Abdel Wahab

and the adaptation or resilience to the event. For example, heat wave–related mortality tends to decrease as air conditioning becomes more widespread. Similarly, lightning casualties decrease when munitions storage facilities install lightning rods and athletic programs establish lightning safety protocols ( Walsh et al. 2013 ). Overall mortality can also decrease as a result of continuous improvement in related forecasting and warning infrastructure. For example, the MeteoAlarm system in Europe

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Iván J. Ramírez, Sue C. Grady, and Michael H. Glantz

and Tauxe 1992 , p. 353). However, these explanations were later challenged by another hypothesis that linked the cholera epidemic to El Niño–Southern Oscillation (ENSO) ( Epstein et al. 1993 ; Colwell 1996 ; Mourino-Perez 1998 ). ENSO, which includes El Niño (warm phase) and La Niña (cold phase), is an important source of climate variability in the Latin American region, well known for ecosystem and societal impacts, particularly in Peru ( Lagos and Buizer 1992 ; Glantz 2001a ; Caviedes 2001

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Vladimir Janković and David M. Schultz

. IPCC (2011 , p. 112) claims that “there is evidence that some extremes have changed as a result of anthropogenic influences, including increases in atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases.” Yet, IPCC (2011 , p. 9) adds that “attribution of single extreme events to anthropogenic climate change is challenging.” A recent report by the National Academies of Sciences Engineering and Medicine (2016 , p. 9) concludes that, although the confidence is highest for attribution of heat- or cold

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