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Andrew R. Jongeward, Zhanqing Li, Hao He, and Xiaoxiong Xiong

mean of the Level-3 daily product produces the Level-3 monthly mean product ( Hubanks et al. 2015 ). Data from MODIS Aqua are used, beginning in July 2002 and ending in December 2012. The upgrade from Collection 051 to 006 was aimed at “maintenance and modest improvement” and does not represent a major upgrade to algorithms or products ( Levy et al. 2013 ). Quality assurance products are also available and the results of trend analysis using this dataset will also be discussed. Unless otherwise

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Yvonne Boose, Zamin A. Kanji, Monika Kohn, Berko Sierau, Assaf Zipori, Ian Crawford, Gary Lloyd, Nicolas Bukowiecki, Erik Herrmann, Piotr Kupiszewski, Martin Steinbacher, and Ulrike Lohmann

. 2011 ). Many studies have been performed by collecting aerosol particles on filters and subsequently exposing them to controlled cooling in the laboratory under sub- or supersaturated conditions with respect to water ( Bigg 1967 ; Klein et al. 2010 ; Santachiara et al. 2010 ; Conen et al. 2012 ; Ardon-Dryer and Levin 2014 ; Knopf et al. 2014 ; Mason et al. 2015 ). Other common techniques are the use of isothermal cloud chambers or continuous flow diffusion chambers (CFDC), which allow online

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Nicholas R. Nalli, William L. Smith, and Quanhua Liu

1. Introduction As discussed previously in Nalli et al. (2012 , 2013a) , accurate satellite observations (obs) and calculations (calc) of clear-sky, top-of-atmosphere (TOA) spectral radiances are necessary for retrieval of environmental data records (EDRs) from satellite infrared (IR) sounder and imager remote sensing systems. IR-based EDR physical retrieval algorithms are based upon the minimization of clear-sky obs minus calc (obs − calc, or equivalently from the forward modeling

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Baolin Jiang, Bo Huang, Wenshi Lin, and Suishan Xu

shown in Fig. 1 , three nested domains (D01, D02, and D03) were introduced to the model with horizontal resolutions of 36, 12, and 4 km, respectively. D03 covered metropolitan areas such as Guangzhou, Shenzhen, and Hong Kong, where considerable amounts of aerosols are emitted into the atmosphere. The corresponding time steps were 120, 40, and 13.3 s. There were 31 unevenly spaced vertical levels from the surface to a fixed pressure of 50 hPa. No observational data were assimilated in any of the

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Stacey Kawecki, Geoffrey M. Henebry, and Allison L. Steiner

( Stevens and Feingold 2009 ). Aerosol impacts on cloud microphysics have been documented in observational studies with satellite and ground-based data ( Rosenfeld 2000 ; Yang et al. 2011 ; Christensen and Stephens 2012 ; Min et al. 2014 ; Rosenfeld et al. 2014 ). In warm, shallow, precipitating clouds, observations and models indicate that the addition of hygroscopic aerosols suppresses precipitation ( Lohmann et al. 1999 ; Rosenfeld 2000 ), as increased CCN drives competition between drops for

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Jiwen Fan, Yuan Wang, Daniel Rosenfeld, and Xiaohong Liu

mainly controlled by atmospheric dynamics and thermodynamics. For warm clouds, the “Twomey” effect (i.e., reducing droplet size and increasing reflectance of clouds due to increased droplet number for a constant liquid water path) proposed about four decades ago ( Twomey 1977 ) is relatively well understood. Many different aerosol indirect effects have since been suggested, such as increased cloud lifetime and cloudiness ( Albrecht 1989 ) and suppressed rain ( Rosenfeld 1999 ) that are both

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