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Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, David Mocko, Rolf Reichle, Yuqiong Liu, Kristi R. Arsenault, Youlong Xia, Michael Ek, George Riggs, Ben Livneh, and Michael Cosh

earlier DA studies ( Kumar et al. 2008 , 2009 ; Peters-Lidard et al. 2011 ). Table 1. Parameters for perturbations to meteorological forcings and model prognostic variables in the EnKF assimilation experiments. Multiple quality-control measures are applied to the soil moisture and snow depth retrievals prior to data assimilation. Similar to the approach of Reichle et al. (2007) , Q. Liu et al. (2011) , and Peters-Lidard et al. (2011) , the soil moisture retrievals from ECV and LPRM that are

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Jiarui Dong, Mike Ek, Dorothy Hall, Christa Peters-Lidard, Brian Cosgrove, Jeff Miller, George Riggs, and Youlong Xia

agriculture. Knowledge of various snowpack properties is crucial for short-term weather forecasts, climate change prediction, and hydrologic forecasting for producing reliable daily to seasonal forecasts. One potential source of this information is the multi-institution North American Land Data Assimilation System (NLDAS) project ( Mitchell et al. 2004 ). Real-time NLDAS products are used for drought monitoring to support the National Integrated Drought Information System (NIDIS) and as initial conditions

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Bart Nijssen, Shraddhanand Shukla, Chiyu Lin, Huilin Gao, Tian Zhou, Ishottama, Justin Sheffield, Eric F. Wood, and Dennis P. Lettenmaier

. , Meyer-Christoffer A. , Ziese M. , and Rudolf B. , 2014 : GPCC’s new land surface precipitation climatology based on quality-controlled in situ data and its role in quantifying the global water cycle . Theor. Appl. Climatol. , 115 , 15 – 40 , doi: 10.1007/s00704-013-0860-x . Sheffield, J. , and Wood E. F. , 2007 : Characteristics of global and regional drought, 1950–2000: Analysis of soil moisture data from off-line simulation of the terrestrial hydrologic cycle . J. Geophys. Res

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Youlong Xia, Michael B. Ek, David Mocko, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Justin Sheffield, Jiarui Dong, and Eric F. Wood

feasible for the objective blend purpose of different drought indicators. Acknowledgments This study is sponsored by the NOAA Climate Program Office’s Modeling, Analysis, Prediction, and Projection (MAPP) program. We thank Dr. Kingtse Mo from Climate Prediction Center, who provided SPI3 and SPI6 derived from CPC gauge precipitation data used in NLDAS-2. Y.X. thanks Dr. Weiyu Yang from EMC and three anonymous reviewers, whose comments and suggestions greatly improved the quality of this manuscript

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Jason A. Otkin, Martha C. Anderson, Christopher Hain, Iliana E. Mladenova, Jeffrey B. Basara, and Mark Svoboda

Drought Response Index (VegDRI): A new integrated approach for monitoring drought stress in vegetation . GISci. Remote Sens. , 45 , 16 – 46 . Ciais, P. , and Coauthors , 2005 : Europe-wide reduction in primary productivity caused by heat and drought in 2003 . Nature , 437 , 529 – 533 . Higgins, R. W. , Shi W. , Yarosh E. , and Joyce R. , 2000 : Improved United States precipitation quality control system and analysis. NCEP/Climate Prediction Center ATLAS 7, Camp Springs, MD, 40 pp

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Eric F. Wood, Siegfried D. Schubert, Andrew W. Wood, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Kingtse C. Mo, Annarita Mariotti, and Roger S. Pulwarty

example, the USDM blend products (cf. Fig. 6 ) currently make use of the CPC soil moisture analysis, which is based on a leaky bucket soil moisture accounting formulation ( Huang et al. 1996 ) that is surpassed in physical realism by the NLDAS modeling efforts. Similarly, the USDM climate division precipitation analysis is now at a coarser resolution than the NLDAS precipitation input; thus, the NLDAS data products can support a finer-resolution and higher-quality version of the USDM objective blends

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Johnna M. Infanti and Ben P. Kirtman

damage, it is important to understand the current prediction capability within the region. It is now fairly well understood that a multimodel approach to prediction is an imperfect but still pragmatic method to estimating forecast uncertainty ( Krishnamurti et al. 1999 , 2000 ; Doblas-Reyes et al. 2000 ; Palmer et al. 2004 ; Hagedorn et al. 2005 ; Weigel et al. 2008 ; Kirtman and Min 2009 ). In this paper we utilize phase-1 data from the North American Multi-Model Ensemble (NMME) system, a

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Shahrbanou Madadgar and Hamid Moradkhani

of drought events in the globe, specifically in the United States. The Drought Impact Reporter (DIR), launched by National Drought Mitigation Center (NDMC), is a comprehensive database reporting damages caused by recent droughts within the United States. Reported by the North America Drought Monitor of National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) National Climate Data Center (NCDC; http://www.ncdc.noaa.gov/temp-and-precip/drought/nadm/ ), droughts with an estimated damage of over 100

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