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A. Anav, P. Friedlingstein, M. Kidston, L. Bopp, P. Ciais, P. Cox, C. Jones, M. Jung, R. Myneni, and Z. Zhu

grid from 1870 to date. The SST data are taken from the Met Office Marine Data Bank (MDB), which from 1982 onward also includes data received through the Global Telecommunications System. To enhance data coverage, monthly median SSTs for 1871–1995 from the Comprehensive Ocean–Atmosphere Data Set (COADS) were also used where there were no MDB data. HadISST temperatures are reconstructed using a two-stage reduced-space optimal interpolation procedure, followed by superposition of quality

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ChuanLi Jiang, Sarah T. Gille, Janet Sprintall, and Colm Sweeney

thus an important factor controlling future CO 2 levels in the atmosphere. Fluxes of CO 2 through the air–sea interface are controlled by winds and by differences in the partial pressure of CO 2 ( p CO 2 ) in the surface ocean compared with the overlying atmosphere (e.g., Takahashi et al. 2002 ). Since geographical variations of atmospheric p CO 2 are relatively small ( Conway et al. 1994 ; Takahashi et al. 2002 ), temporal and spatial variations of Southern Ocean p CO 2 are key to

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Pu Shao, Xubin Zeng, Koichi Sakaguchi, Russell K. Monson, and Xiaodong Zeng

disturbance and lag. Jung et al. (2011) estimated the uncertainty of the globally averaged GPP to be ±6 kgC m −2 yr −1 . The NPP data ( Zhao et al. 2005 ) are derived from MODIS products, and the data quality is affected by the uncertainties in the descriptions of biome type and meteorological input data as well as in the algorithm that translates measured parameters into inferred process rates. Zhao et al. (2005) indicated that these uncertainties may be large in some regions or during some seasons

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Eleanor J. Burke, Chris D. Jones, and Charles D. Koven

warming of 0.09°–0.75°C caused by the permafrost-carbon climate feedback. In general, the permafrost-carbon climate feedback is not yet included within coupled earth system general circulation models (GCMs). Table 1. Table showing the physical characteristics of the permafrost simulated by the different CMIP5 models. Each of the CMIP5 models was regridded to the 2° resolution of the JULES-WATCH reference data ( Burke et al. 2013 ) and the area calculated. The models that fall near the observed range

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